HomePage
 




 


 

ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)
 

 

 

Editor-in-Chief

Associate Editor
Tomasz Neumann
 

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
www http://www.transnav.eu
e-mail transnav@am.gdynia.pl
Preliminary Results of a System-theoretic Assessment of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships’ Safety
1 Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
2 Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
ABSTRACT: While a system-theoretic approach to the safety analysis of innovative socio-technical systems gains a growing acceptance among academia, safety issues of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we applied a System-Theoretic Process Analysis to develop and analyze a preliminary model of the unmanned shipping system in order to elaborate safety recommendations for future developers of the actual system. Results indicate that certain advancements shall be undertaken in relation to MASS’ software solutions in particular.
REFERENCES
Abdulkhaleq, Asim, Markus Baumeister, Hagen Böhmert, and Stefan Wagner. 2018. “Missing No Interaction—Using STPA for Identifying Hazardous Interactions of Automated Driving Systems.” International Journal of Safety Science 02 (01): 115–24. https://doi.org/10.24900/ijss/0201115124.2018.0301. - doi:10.24900/ijss/0201115124.2018.0301
Allison, Craig K., Kirsten M. Revell, Rod Sears, and Neville A. Stanton. 2017. “Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Process (STAMP) Safety Modelling Applied to an Aircraft Rapid Decompression Event.” Safety Science 98 (October). Elsevier Ltd: 159–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2017.06.011. - doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2017.06.011
Altabbakh, Hanan, Mohammad A. AlKazimi, Susan Murray, and Katie Grantham. 2014. “STAMP - Holistic System Safety Approach or Just Another Risk Model?” Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 32. Elsevier Ltd: 109–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2014.07.010. - doi:10.1016/j.jlp.2014.07.010
Bjerga, Torbjørn, Terje Aven, and Enrico Zio. 2016. “Uncertainty Treatment in Risk Analysis of Complex Systems: The Cases of STAMP and FRAM.” Reliability Engineering and System Safety 156. Elsevier: 203–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2016.08.004. - doi:10.1016/j.ress.2016.08.004
Boogaard, Maurits Van Den, Andreas Feys, Mike Overbeek, Joan Le Poole, and Robert Hekkenberg. 2016. “Control Concepts for Navigation of Autonomous Ships in Ports.” In 10th Symposium on High-Performance Marine Vehicles. Cortona.
Burmeister, Hans-Christoph, Wilko C Bruhn, Ørnulf Jan Rødseth, and Thomas Porathe. 2014. “Can Unmanned Ships Improve Navigational Safety?” In Proceedings of the Transport Research Arena. Paris.
Condamin, Laurent, Jean-Paul Louisot, and Patrick Naïm. 2007. Risk Quantification: Management, Diagnosis and Hedging. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Filho, A, GT Jun, and P Waterson. 2019. “Four Studies, Two Methods, One Accident—another Look at the Reliability and Validity of Accimap and STAMP for Systemic Accident Analysis.” Safety Science 113. Elsevier: 310–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.12.002. - doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2018.12.002
Flage, Roger, and Terje Aven. 2009. “Expressing and Communicating Uncertainty in Relation to Quantitative Risk Analysis.” Reliability & Risk Analysis: Theory & Application 2 (13): 9–18.
Fleming, Cody Harrison, and Nancy Leveson. 2015. “Integrating Systems Safety into Systems Engineering during Concept Development.” In 25th INCOSE International Symposium, 989–1003. Seatlle, WA. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2334-5837.2015.00111.x. - doi:10.1002/j.2334-5837.2015.00111.x
Goerlandt, Floris, Nima Khakzad, and Genserik Reniers. 2017. “Validity and Validation of Safety-Related Quantitative Risk Analysis: A Review.” Safety Science 99 (November): 127–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.08.023. - doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2016.08.023
Goerlandt, Floris, and Genserik Reniers. 2016. “On the Assessment of Uncertainty in Risk Diagrams.” Safety Science 84: 67–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.12.001. - doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2015.12.001
Hogg, Trudi, and Samrat Ghosh. 2016. “Autonomous Merchant Vessels: Examination of Factors That Impact the Effective Implementation of Unmanned Ships.” Australian Journal of Maritime & Ocean Affairs 8 (3): 206–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/18366503.2016.1229244. - doi:10.1080/18366503.2016.1229244
Hollnagel, Erik. 2014. “Is Safety a Subject for Science?” Safety Science 67: 21–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2013.07.025. - doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2013.07.025
Kazaras, Konstantinos, Tom Kontogiannis, and Konstantinos Kirytopoulos. 2014. “Proactive Assessment of Breaches of Safety Constraints and Causal Organizational Breakdowns in Complex Systems: A Joint STAMP-VSM Framework for Safety Assessment.” Safety Science 62. Elsevier Ltd: 233–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2013.08.013. - doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2013.08.013
Kee, Dohyung, Gyuchan Thomas Jun, Patrick Waterson, and Roger Haslam. 2017. “A Systemic Analysis of South Korea Sewol Ferry Accident - Striking a Balance between Learning and Accountability.” Applied Ergonomics 59. Elsevier Ltd: 504–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2016.07.014. - doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2016.07.014
Kim, Tae-eun, Salman Nazir, and Kjell Ivar Øvergård. 2016. “A STAMP-Based Causal Analysis of the Korean Sewol Ferry Accident.” Safety Science 83: 93–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.11.014. - doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2015.11.014
Kobyliński, Lech. 2018. “Smart Ships – Autonomous or Remote Controlled?” Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin 53 (125): 28–34. https://doi.org/10.17402/262. - doi:10.17402/262
Leveson, Nancy G. 2011. Engineering a Safer World - Systems Thinking Applied to Safety. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. - doi:10.7551/mitpress/8179.001.0001
Leveson, Nancy G., and John P. Thomas. 2018. STPA Handbook. https://doi.org/10.2143/JECS.64.3.2961411.
Lloyd’s Register. 2017. “Cyber-Enabled Ships. ShipRight Procedure Assignment for Cyber Descriptive Notes for Autonomous & Remote Access Ships.” Southampton.
Lower, Michał, Jan Magott, and Jacek Skorupski. 2018. “A System-Theoretic Accident Model and Process with Human Factors Analysis and Classification System Taxonomy.” Safety Science. - doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2018.04.015
Man, Yemao, Reto Weber, Johan Cimbritz, Monica Lundh, and Scott N. MacKinnon. 2018. “Human Factor Issues during Remote Ship Monitoring Tasks: An Ecological Lesson for System Design in a Distributed Context.” International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 68. Elsevier: 231–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2018.08.005. - doi:10.1016/j.ergon.2018.08.005
Nautilus Federation. 2018. “Future Proofed? What Maritime Professionals Think about Autonomous Shipping.” London.
Porathe, Thomas. 2016. “A Navigating Navigator Onboard or a Monitoring Operator Ashore? Towards Safe, Effective, and Sustainable Maritime Transportation: Findings from Five Recent EU Projects.” Transportation Research Procedia 14 (2352). Elsevier B.V.: 233–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.060. - doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.060
Porathe, Thomas, Johannes Prison, and Yemao Man. 2014. “Situation Awareness in Remote Control Centres for Unmanned Ships.” In Human Factors in Ship Design & Operation. London.
Ramos, Marilia, Ingrid Bouwer Utne, Jan Erik Vinnem, and Ali Mosleh. 2018. “Accounting for Human Failure in Autonomous Ships Operations.” In Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World ESREL 2018, edited by Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, and Jan Erik Vinnem, 355–63. Trondheim: CRC Press.
Rødseth, Ørnulf Jan, and Åsmund Tjora. 2014. “A System Architecture for an Unmanned Ship.” In 13th International Conference on Computer and IT Applications in the Maritime Industries (COMPIT 2014), 291–302. Redworth. http://www.ssi.tu-harburg.de/doc/webseiten_dokumente/compit/dokumente/compit2014_redworth.pdf.
Thieme, Christoph Alexander, Ingrid Bouwer Utne, and Stein Haugen. 2018. “Assessing Ship Risk Model Applicability to Marine Autonomous Surface Ships.” Ocean Engineering 165. Elsevier Ltd: 140–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.OCEANENG.2018.07.040. - doi:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.07.040
Utne, Ingrid B., Ingrid Schjølberg, and Emery Roe. 2019. “High Reliability Management and Control Operator Risks in Autonomous Marine Systems and Operations.” Ocean Engineering 171. Elsevier Ltd: 399–416. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.OCEANENG.2018.11.034. - doi:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.11.034
Valdez Banda, Osiris A, and Floris Goerlandt. 2018. “A STAMP-Based Approach for Designing Maritime Safety Management Systems.” Safety Science 109. Elsevier: 109–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2018.05.003. - doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2018.05.003
Waldrop, M. Mitchell. 2015. “Autonomous Vehicles: No Drivers Required.” Nature 518: 20–23. https://doi.org/10.1038/518020a. - doi:10.1038/518020a
Wróbel, Krzysztof, Jakub Montewka, and Pentti Kujala. 2018a. “System-Theoretic Approach to Safety of Remotely-Controlled Merchant Vessel.” Ocean Engineering 152: 334–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.01.020. - doi:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.01.020
Wróbel, Krzysztof, Jakub Montewka, and Pentti Kujala. 2018b. “Towards the Development of a System-Theoretic Model for Safety Assessment of Autonomous Merchant Vessels.” Reliability Engineering & System Safety 178: 209–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2018.05.019. - doi:10.1016/j.ress.2018.05.019
Citation note:
Wróbel K., Krata P., Montewka J.: Preliminary Results of a System-theoretic Assessment of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships’ Safety. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 13, No. 4, doi:10.12716/1001.13.04.03, pp. 717-723, 2019
Authors in other databases:
Krzysztof Wróbel:
Przemysław Krata: Scopus icon36188218300 Scholar iconcDDmTf4AAAAJ
Jakub Montewka:

Other publications of authors:

F. Goerlandt, M. Hänninen, K. Ståhlberg, J. Montewka, P. Kujala

File downloaded 49 times








Important: TransNav.eu cookie usage
The TransNav.eu website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the TransNav.eu website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony