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2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
Using the FRAM to Understand Arctic Ship Navigation: Assessing Work Processes During the Exxon Valdez Grounding
1 Memorial University of Newfoundland, NL, St. John’s, Canada
ABSTRACT: Arctic shipping involves a complex combination of inter-related factors that need to be managed correctly for operations to succeed. In this paper, the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) is used to assess the combination of human, technical, and organizational factors that constitute a shipping operation. A methodology is presented on how to apply the FRAM to a domain, with a focus on ship navigation. The method draws on ship navigators to inform the building of the model and to learn about practical variations that must be managed to effectively navigate a ship. The Exxon Valdez case is used to illustrate the model’s utility and provide some context to the information gathered by this investigation. The functional signature of the work processes of the Exxon Valdez on the night of the grounding is presented. This shows the functional dynamics of that particular ship navigation case, and serves to illustrate how the FRAM approach can provide another perspective on the safety of complex operations.
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Citation note:
Smith D., Veitch B., Khan F., Taylor R.: Using the FRAM to Understand Arctic Ship Navigation: Assessing Work Processes During the Exxon Valdez Grounding. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 12, No. 3, doi:10.12716/1001.12.03.03, pp. 447-457, 2018
Authors in other databases:
Doug Smith: Scopus icon57198520116
Brian Veitch: Scopus icon7003302037
Rocky Taylor: Scopus icon36184761000 Scholar icony7B8tRkAAAAJ

Other publications of authors:

M. Anantharaman, R. Islam, F. Khan, V. Garaniya, B. Lewarn

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