HomePage
 




 


 

ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)
 

 

 

Editor-in-Chief

Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann
 

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
www http://www.transnav.eu
e-mail transnav@umg.edu.pl
The Use of Instructional Materials in Physical Education to Enhance the Students’ Knowledge and Skills in Swimming and Life-Saving Techniques
ABSTRACT: John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University (Arevalo), Inc. is mandated to offer aquatic-sports courses such as paddling, rowing, sailing, and swimming to equip students with needed skills essential for survival in case of emergencies. Since, there is a dearth of instructional materials in Physical Education 2 (Advanced Swimming and Life-saving Techniques), the JBLFMU-Arevalo was given a research grant by the CHED (Commission on Higher Education) known as DARE TO (Discovery Applied Research and Extension Trans/Inter-Disciplinary Opportunities) to address the problem. This DARE TO grant aimed to develop instructional materials in PE 2 that will enhance the swimming performance and life-saving techniques of students. That is why the researchers would like to test for the effectiveness of this instructional material in the form of modules over the traditional approach which is lecture in improving the students’ swimming performance and life-saving techniques in terms of their knowledge and skills. This non-equivalent control group under quasi-experimental study was utilized among the BSMT (Bachelor of Science in Marine Transportation) students. A pretest was used to determine swimming performance of the experimental and control groups. An intervention through the use of instructional materials was employed in the experimental group for the whole semester (five months) while the control group was exposed to lecture as a traditional method of instruction. After a semester, the posttest was administered. The statistical tools used were mean, standard deviation, Mann-Whitney test, and Wilcoxon-signed ranks test. The findings of the study revealed that the instructional material is effective in enhancing the swimming performance and life-saving techniques of students both in the aspects of knowledge and skills. Both the experimental and control groups were “Fair” in their knowledge pretest scores but during the posttest, the experimental group was “Good” and the control group was “Fair”. On the other hand, both the experimental and control groups were “Fair” in their skills’ pretest scores but during their posttest, the control group was “Good” while the experimental group was “Excellent”. The experimental group who used the module showed significantly better performance during the posttest both for knowledge and skills compared to the control group who did not use the module (lecture only). The study further showed significant differences in the mean gains between the experimental and control groups after the conduct of pretest and posttest in favor of the experimental group. It can be gleaned from the results that the module can enhance the knowledge and skills in swimming performance and life-saving techniques of the experimental group. It is highly recommended that this module be utilized among maritime schools offering swimming and life-saving courses.
REFERENCES
International Chamber of Shipping. 2017. Global Supply and Demand for Seafarers. http://www.ics-shipping.org/shipping-facts/shipping-and-world-trade/global-supply-and-demand-for-seafarers.
Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. 2016. POEA Implements Online Registration of Seafarers. http://www.poea.gov.ph/news/2016/08-3.pdf.
BIMCO Report. 2016. Baltic and International Maritime Council. https://www.bimco.org/news/prioritynews/20160517_bimco_ manpower_report.
Depasupil, W. 2016. Filipino Seafarers Top Choice. http://www.manilatimes.net/filipino-seafarers-top-choice/259323/.
Cahoon, S., Caesar, L., and Fei, J. 2014. “Human Resource Practices in Seafaring: Opportunities for Improving Retention.” https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jiangang_Fei/publication/292424132_Human_resource_practices_in_seafaring_Opportunities_for_improving_retention/links/59471e920f7e9b6910f72ddf/Human-resource-practices-in-seafaring-Opportunities-for-improving-retention.pdf.
Manalo, E., Marshall, J., and Fraser, C. 2010. “Student Learning Support Programmes that Demonstrate Tangible Impact on Retention, Pass Rates and Completion.” https://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/download/ng/file/group-5/student-learning-support-programmes-that-demonstrate-tangible-impact-on-retention.
The Official Gazette. 2018. The 1987 Constitution of The Republic of the Philippines: Article XIV. http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/constitutions/the-1987-constitution-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines/the-1987-constitution-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines-article-xiv/.
Commission on Higher Education. 2019. Joint CHED-MARINA Memorandum Circular No. 01. Series of 2019. https://ched.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/JCMC-No.-1-s.-2019-PSG-BSMT-BSMarE.pdf.
Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 2018. “Republic Act No. 5708: An Act Providing for the Promotion and Financing of an Integrated Physical Education and Sports Development Program for The Schools in The Philippines.” http://www.chanrobles.com/republicacts/republicactno5708.html#.WpJi0aiWZPY.
SOLAS. 2014. SOLAS Consolidated. London: Polestar Wheatons (UK) Ltd.
STCW. 2010. STCW Including 2010 Manila Amendments. Croydon: CPI Group (UK) Ltd.
IMO Model Course 1.19. 2000. Proficiency in Personal Survival Techniques. United Kingdom: Ashford Press.
Zhenbin, L. 2017. “On the Maritime PE Reform under the Amended STCW Convention.” Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering 7: 74-7. - doi:10.17265/2159-5879/2017.02.004
Bailey, R., Armour, K., Kirk, D., Jess, M., Pickup, I., Sandford, R., and Education, B. P. 2009. “The Educational Benefits Claimed for Physical Education and School Sport: An Academic Review.” Research Papers in Education 24 (1): 1-27. - doi:10.1080/02671520701809817
Ditchfield, C. 2000. Swimming and Diving. Connecticut: Children’s Press.
Katz, J. 2011. “Swimming for Total Fitness: A Progressive Aerobic Program.” https://books.google.com.ph/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qbBU0Ew4V8MC&oi=fnd&pg=PR13&dq=fundamentals+of+swimming+skills&ots=pS2voFZ9Gm&sig=CAB4Da76jAiaU4J3VmAZ_2QPbts&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=fundamentals%20of%20swimming%20skills&f=falsev.
American Red Cross. 2009. Swimming and Water Safety. https://www.redcross.org/images/MEDIA_CustomProductCatalog/m3240085_SwimmingWaterSafety.pdf.
Bottom, M., and Jendrick, N. 2011. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Swimming. New York, NY: Penguin Group.
Guzman, R. 2017. The Swimming Drill Book. https://books.google.com.ph/books?hl=en&lr=&id=3Sw9DgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=gliding+as+fundamentals+of+swimming&ots=kjBMIPMb0d&sig=oaUV56wcAQ82LkFB4ayPzdigKIQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=gliding%20as%20fundamentals%20of%20swimming&f=false.
Thomas, D. G. 2005. Swimming: Steps to Success. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Cohen, R. C., Cleary, P. W., Mason, B. R., and Pease, D. L. 2015. “The Role of the Hand during Freestyle Swimming.” Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 137 (11): 117-59. - doi:10.1115/1.4031586
Montgomery, J., and Chambers. 2009. Mastering Swimming. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Wellness, B. 2017. Health Benefits of Swimming. http://www.berkeleywellness.com/fitness/active-lifestyle/article/why-swimming-so-good-you.
Health Direct. 2016. Health Benefits of Swimming. https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/health-benefits-of-swimming.
Gelt, J. 2017. “Making Waves: The Benefits of Swimming on Aging Populations.” https://incontext.education.utexas.edu/making-waves-the-benefits-of-swimming-on-aging-populations/.
Marcin, A. 2017. “What Are the Top 12 Benefits of Swimming?” https://www.healthline.com/health/benefits-of-swimming.
Serva, C. 2017. “The Benefits of Swimming.” https://study.com/academy/lesson/the-benefits-of-swimming.html.
Bherer, L., Erickson, K. I., and Ambrose, T. L. 2013. “Physical Exercise and Brain Functions in Older Adults.” Journal of Aging Research 2013: 1-2. - doi:10.1155/2013/197326
Dua, J. S., Cooper, A. R., Fox. K. R.,and Stuart, G. 2009. “Exercise Training in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Feasibility and Benefits.” International Journal of Cardiology 138: 196-205. - doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.01.038
Knochel, C., Oertel-Knochel, V., O’Dwyer, L., Prvulovic, D., Alves, G., Kollmann, B., and Hampel, H. 2011. “Cognitive and Behavioural Effects of Physical Exercise in Psychiatric Patients.” Progress in Neurobiology 96: 46-68. - doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2011.11.007
Petrescu, S., Piţigoi, G., and Păunescu, M. 2014. “The Effects of Practicing Swimming on the Psychological Tone in Adulthood.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 159: 74-7. - doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.331
Zaton, K., and Jaszczak, M. 2008. Science in Swimming. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309591446.
Crittenden, L. 2013. The Healing Power of Water. New York: Academic Press. https://spiritualityhealth.com/ articles/2013/12/26/healing-powerwater.
Lindgren, N., and Nilsson, J. 2012. “Filipinos Sailing on the Seven Seas: A Qualitative Study of Filipino Seafarers Working on International Vessels.” http://bada.hb.se/bitstream/2320/10667/1/Lindgren_Nilsson.pdf-pass-rates--completion.pdf.
Dipndive. 2018. Scuba Basics: Water Entry Methods. https://dipndive.com/blog/scuba-basics-water-entry-methods.html.
Free Lifesaving Society. 2018. Safe Water Entry and Exit. http://www.freelifesavingsociety.com/swimming/Safety/entry-and-exi t.html.
Swimming New Zealand. 2018. Stride Entry. https://www.swimming.org.nz/article.php?group_id=25887.
Young, M. 2018. Swim Teach the Basics of Swimming Made Easy. https://www.swim-teach.com/safe-entries-into-water.html.
American Red Cross. 2012. Lifeguarding Manual. https://con2.classes.redcross.org/learningcontent/PHSS/Lifeguarding/Lifeguarding_032112/media/pdf/LG_PM_CH6_Skill_Sheet_ENTRIES.pdf.
Blocks Swim School. 2016. Water Entries. http://startingblocks.com.au/swimschool/index.php/teachers/tips/85-water-entries.
Ellis, C. 2018. Rescue Skills. http://ceellis.aurorak12.org/wpcontent/uploads/sites/25/2011/01/Chapter-5-Rescue-Skills.pdf.
Lifesaving Society. 2014. Bronze Medallion Workbook—Instructors Answer Guide. http://www.lifesavingsociety.com/media/196. 183/98bronzemedallionworkbook_answerguide_final.pdf
Mello, G. J. 2010. Pushing the Limit: Trying for One More Day. https://books.google.com.ph/books?id= WPqDKYsp3cAC&dq=wrist+escape+%2B+swimming&source=gbs_navlinks_s.
Merrillville Community School Corporation. 2018. Swimming Study Guide. http://merrillville.schoolwires.net/cms/lib/IN01001403/Centricity/Domain/403/Swimming_Study_Guide.doc.
Quizlet. 2018. American Red Cross Lifeguarding: Chapter 6. https://quizlet.com/21533340/american-red-cross-lifeguarding-chapter-6-flash-cards/.
SACE Board of South Australia. 2013. Specific Skills Criteria—Swimming and Lifesaving. https://www.sace.sa.edu.au/documents/652891/83ccfd19-5c4e-4cec-9395-e2db1011bac0.
Torpedo Swimming Team. 2018. Life-saving 1, 2 and 3. http://www.torpedoswim.com.sg/uploads/2/2/0/4/2204536/torpedo_life-saving_lesson_plan.pdf.
European Maritime Safety Agency. 2016. Annual Overview of Marine Casualties Incidents 2016. http://www.standard-club.com/media/n2519681/annual-overview-of-marine-casualties-incid ents-2016.pdf.
Bruner, J. S. 1966. Toward a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dekeyser, R. 2007. Skill Acquisition Theory. Theories in Second Language Acquisition. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Trochim, W. M. K. 2020. The Nonequivalent Groups Design. Research Methods Knowledge Base. https://conjointly.com/kb/nonequivalent-groups-design/.
Lana, R. 2009. “Pretest sensitization.” In Artifacts in Behavioral Research, edited by Rosenthal and Rosnow. New York: Academic Press, pp. 93-109. - doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385540.003.0004
Foster, M., Shurtz, S., and Pepper, C. 2014. “Evaluation of Best Practices in the Design of Online Evidence-Based Practice Instructional Modules.” Journal of the Medical Library Association 102 (1): 31-40. - doi:10.3163/1536-5050.102.1.007
Rasberry, C., Lee, S., Robin, L., Laris, B., Russell, L., Coyle, K., and Nihiser, A. 2011. “The Association between School-Based Physical Activity, Including Physical Education, and Academic Performance: A Systematic Review of the Literature.” Preventive Medicine 52 (Suppl. 1): 10-20. - doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.01.027
Metzler, M. 2017. Instructional Models in Physical Education (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge. - doi:10.4324/9781315213521
Diamond, B., Maerten-Rivera, J., Rohrer, R., and Lee, O. 2014. “Effectiveness of a Curricular and Professional Development Intervention at Improving Elementary Teachers’ Science Content Knowledge and Student Achievement Outcomes: Year 1 Results.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching 51 (5): 635-58. - doi:10.1002/tea.21148
Bunketorp, L., Malmgren, H., Olsson, E., Lindén, T., and Nilsson, M. 2015. “Effects of a Curricular Physical Activity Intervention on Children’s School Performance, Wellness, and Brain Development.” The Journal of School Health 85 (10): 704-13. - doi:10.1111/josh.12303
Petrass, L., and Blitvich, J. 2014. “Preventing Adolescent Drowning: Understanding Water Safety Knowledge, Attitudes and Swimming Ability. The Effect of a Short Water Safety Intervention.” Accident: Analysis and Prevention 70: 188-94. - doi:10.1016/j.aap.2014.04.006
Cohen, J. 1988. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rosenthal, J. 1996. “Qualitative Descriptors of Strength of Association and Effect Size.” Journal of Social Service Research 21 (4): 37-59. - doi:10.1300/J079v21n04_02
Coe, R. 2002. “It’s the Effect Size, Stupid: What ‘Effect Size’ Is and Why It Is Important.” http://www.leeds. ac.uk/educol/documents/00002182.htm.
Aidoo, B., Boateng, S., Kissi, P., ad Ofori, I. N. 2016. “Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Students’ Achievement in Chemistry.” Journal of Education and Practice 7: 103-8.
Parr, B., Edwards, M., and Leising, J. 2009. “Selected Effects of a Curriculum Integration Intervention on the Mathematics Performance of Secondary Students Enrolled in an Agricultural Power and Technology Course: An Experimental Study.” Journal of Agricultural Education 50 (1): 57-69. - doi:10.5032/jae.2009.01057
Kirk, R. E. 2009. “Experimental Design.” In Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology, edited by R. Millsap and A. Maydeu-Olivares. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 23-45. - doi:10.4135/9780857020994.n2
Dickinson, D. 2011. “Teachers’ Language Practices and Academic Outcomes of Preschool Children.” Science 333: 964-7. - doi:10.1126/science.1204526
Matton, N., Vautier, S., and Raufaste, E. 2009. “Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach.” Intelligence 37 (4): 412-21. - doi:10.1016/j.intell.2009.03.011
Shidler, L. 2008. “The Impact of Time Spent Coaching for Teacher Efficacy on Student Achievement.” Early Childhood Education Journal 36: 453-60. - doi:10.1007/s10643-008-0298-4
Partin, T., Robertson, R., Maggin, D., Oliver, R., and Wehby, J. 2009. “Using Teacher Praise and Opportunities to Respond to Promote Appropriate Student Behavior.” Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth 54 (3): 172-8. - doi:10.1080/10459880903493179
Citation note:
Germo R.R., Sarinas B.G.S., Coo E.C., Teruñez M.R., Gavadan B.E., Jardenil C.Y., Flores J.R.P.V.: The Use of Instructional Materials in Physical Education to Enhance the Students’ Knowledge and Skills in Swimming and Life-Saving Techniques. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 16, No. 2, doi:10.12716/1001.16.02.05, pp. 233-240, 2022
Authors in other databases:
Roderick Germo:
E.C. Coo:
M.R. Teruñez:
B.E. Gavadan:
C.Y. Jardenil:
J.R.P.V. Flores:

Other publications of authors:


File downloaded 23 times








Important: TransNav.eu cookie usage
The TransNav.eu website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the TransNav.eu website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony