Journal is indexed in following databases:

2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
Blended Learning Approach in Improving Student’s Academic Performance in Information Communication, and Technology (ICT)
1 John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University, Iloilo City, Philippines
Times cited (SCOPUS): 2
ABSTRACT: This quasi-experimental study aimed at looking into the effectiveness of blended learning approach in improving the performance in Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT) Course of Bachelor of Science in Marine Transportation (BSMT) first year students at JBLFMU-Arevalo during the second semester of school year 2018-2019. The respondents of this research were the two sections comparable with each other who were enrolled in the subject ICT. There were 40 student respondents composed of 20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. A validated and reliability-tested 45 item researcher-made multiple choice test was used as an instrument with a Cronbach index of 0.88. The statistical tools used were mean, standard deviation, Mann-Whitney test, and Wilcoxon-Signed ranks test set at .05 level of significance. The effect size was computed to determine the effectiveness of the blended learning approach in terms of students’ performance in ICT. Results showed that in the pretest, though the experimental group had a higher mean score than the control group, the Mann-Whitney test showed that the mean scores of the two groups were comparable because the significant value was greater than .05. When the treatment was introduced, findings showed that there were significant differences in the ICT performance in the pretest and posttest of experimental and control groups as well as in the posttests of both groups. Results inferred that blended learning approach was more than a hundred percent effective showing significant results on the experimental group. It could also be inferred that the better performance of the control group could be attributed to the traditional method of teaching, the lecture method.
Horton, W. 2011. E-learning by Design. Retrieved from q=e+learning+definitions&ots=UM8JgHhazk&sig=CcmyEuAd43jvprmipVS8lMp6ct8&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=e%20learning%20definitions&f=false
Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. 2016. E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. Retrieved from v1uz CgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR17&dq=e+learning&ots=TMwLiLeL8k&sig=ptpSAhY4lBdwAaQ9a0mksOJKCQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=e%20learning&f=false
Garrison, D. R. 2011. E-learning in the 21st Century: A Framework for Research and Practice. Retrieved from /9781136879913 - doi:10.4324/9780203838761
Pena-Bandalaria, M. M. D. 2009. E-learning in the Philippines: Trends, directions, and challenges. International Journal on E-Learning, 8(4), 495-510.
Moore, J. L., Dickson-Deane, C., & Galyen, K. 2011. e-Learning, online learning, and distance learning environments: Are they the same?. The Internet and Higher Education, 14(2), 129-135. - doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2010.10.001
Sangrà, A., Vlachopoulos, D., & Cabrera, N. 2012. Building an inclusive definition of e-learning: An approach to the conceptual framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(2), 145-159. - doi:10.19173/irrodl.v13i2.1161
Herrington, J., Reeves, T. C., & Oliver, R. 2009. A Guide to Authentic E-learning. Retrieved from eprint/1903/1/ a_guide_to_authentic_learning.pdf - doi:10.4324/9780203864265
Esteves, K. K. 2012. Exploring facebook to enhance learning and student engagement: a case from the University of Philippines (UP) Open University. Malaysian Journal of Distance Education, 14(1), 115.
Hrastinski, S. (2008). Asynchronous and synchronous e-learning. Educause Quarterly, 31(4), 51-55.
Adrian, L. A. D. O. (2013). Asynchronous E-learning. Retrieved from http://web.
Hyder, K., Kwinn, A., Miazga, R., & Murray, M. 2007. Synchronous E-learning. The eLearning Guild. Retrieved from https://s3.amazonaws. com/
Andersson, A., & Grönlund, Å. 2009. A conceptual framework for e‐learning in developing countries: A critical review of research challenges. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 38(1), 1-16 - doi:10.1002/j.1681-4835.2009.tb00271.x
Bhuasiri, W., Xaymoungkhoun, O., Zo, H., Rho, J. J., & Ciganek, A. P. 2012. Critical success factors for e-learning in developing countries: A comparative analysis between ICT experts and faculty. Computers and Education, 58(2), 843-855. - doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2011.10.010
Masud, M. A. H., & Huang, X. 2012. An e-learning system architecture based on cloud computing. System, 10(11), 255-259.
Acosta, M. 2016. Paradigm shift in open education and e-learning resources as teaching and learning in Philippines. Jurnal Ilmiah Peuradeun, 4(2), 161-172. - doi:10.26811/peuradeun.v4i2.94
Button, D., Harrington, A., & Belan, I. (2014). E-learning & information communication technology (ICT) in nursing education: A review of the literature. Nurse Education Today, 34(10), 1311-1323. - doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2013.05.002
Siemens, G. 2004. Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Retrieved from
David, F. 2005. Understanding and doing research: A handbook for beginners. Jaro, Iloilo City: Panorama Printing Inc.
Navallasca, M.C., Dumaicos, M., & Atancaio, F. 2017. The use of problem-based learning (PBL) in improving the student performance in navigation 3. Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering, 4, 161-167.
Simkins, S., & Allen, S. 2000. Pretesting students to improve teaching and learning. International Advances in Economic Research, 6 (1), 100-112. doi: 10.1007/BF02295755,Wellness, and Brain Development.” The Journal of School Health 85 (10): 704-13. - doi:10.1007/BF02295755
Kirk, R. E. 2009. Experimental design. In R. Millsap and A. Maydeu-Olivares (Eds.). Sage handbook of quantitative methods in psychology (pp. 23–45). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. - doi:10.4135/9780857020994.n2
Aidoo, B., Boateng, S., Kissi, P., & Ofori, I.N. 2016. Effect of problem-based learning on students’ achievement in chemistry. Journal of Education and Practice, 7, 103-108.
González-Gómez, D., Jeong, J. S., Rodríguez, D. A., & Cañada-Cañada, F. 2016. Performance and perception in the flipped learning model: An initial approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a new teaching methodology in a general science classroom. Journal of Science and Education Technology, 25 (3), 450-459. - doi:10.1007/s10956-016-9605-9
Israel, M. J. 2015. Effectiveness of integrating MOOCs in traditional classrooms for undergraduate students. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16 (5), 102-118. - doi:10.19173/irrodl.v16i5.2222
Dickinson, D. 2011. Teachers’ language practices and academic outcomes of preschool children. Science, 333, 964 – 967. - doi:10.1126/science.1204526
Metzler, M. 2017. Instructional models in physical education (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge. - doi:10.4324/9781315213521
Potter, J. (2015). Applying a hybrid model: Can it enhance student learning outcomes? Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 17, 1-11.
Olicia, J. V. 2016. An Action Research on the Effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction in Teaching English for Grade Four Classes. Retrieved from education/
Foster, M., Shurtz, S., & Pepper, C. 2014. Evaluation of best practices in the design of online evidence-based practice instructional modules. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 102 (1), 31-40. - doi:10.3163/1536-5050.102.1.007
Bartolucci, A. A., Tendera, M., & Howard, G. 2011. Meta-analysis of multiple primary prevention trials of cardiovascular events using aspirin. The American Journal of Cardiology, 107(12), 1796-1801. - doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.02.325
Carson C. 2012. The Effective Use of Effect Size Indices in Institutional Research. Retrieved from
Coe, R. 2002. It's the Effect Size, Stupid: What “Effect Size” is and Why it is Important. Retrieved from 00002182.htm
Citation note:
Germo R.R.: Blended Learning Approach in Improving Student’s Academic Performance in Information Communication, and Technology (ICT). TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 16, No. 2, doi:10.12716/1001.16.02.07, pp. 251-256, 2022

File downloaded 685 times

Important: cookie usage
The website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony