ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
www http://www.transnav.eu
e-mail transnav@umg.edu.pl
Ship-Iceberg Detection & Classification in Sentinel-1 SAR Images
1 Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
ABSTRACT: The European Space Agency Sentinel-1 satellites provide good resolution all weather SAR images. We describe algorithms for detection and classification of ships, icebergs and other objects at sea. Sidelobes from strongly reflecting objects as large ships are suppressed for better determination of ship parameters. The resulting improved ship lengths and breadths are larger than the ground truth values known from Automatic Identification System (AIS) data due to the limited resolution in the processing of the SAR images as compared to previous analyses of Sentinel-2 optical images. The limited resolution in SAR imagery degrades spatial classification algorithms but it is found that the backscatter horizontal and vertical polarizations can be exploited to distinguish icebergs in the Arctic from large ships but not small boats or wakes.
ESA Copenernicus Program, Sentinel Scientific Data Hub. https://sentinel.esa.int/web/sentinel/user-guides/sentinel-1-sar/document-library/-/asset_publisher/1dO7RF5fJMbd/content/sentinel-1-product-definition
C-CORE. “Summary of previous research in iceberg and ship detection and discrimination in SAR,” DRDC report no: R-13-060-1098, 2013.
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C. Santamaria, H. Greidanus, M. Fournier, T. Eriksen, M. Vespe, M. Alvarez, V.F. Arguedas, C. Delaney, P. Argentieri, “Sentinel-1 contribution to monitoring maritime activity in the Arctic,” Proc. Living Planet Symposium 2016, Prague, ESA SP-740, 2016.
G. Hajduch, N. Longepe, J. Hanonneau, J.Y. Le Bras, “Progress in automatic ship detection and classification,” Proc. SEASAR 2012, Tromso, Norway, 2012, ESA SP-709 2013, id. 19
H. Heiselberg, “A direct and fast methodology for ship recognition in Sentinel-2 multispectral imagery by supervised classification,” Remote Sens., vol. 8, pp. 1033, 2016. - doi:10.3390/rs8121033
P. Heiselberg, H. Heiselberg, “Ship-Iceberg discrimination in Sentinel-2 multispectral imagery,” Remote Sens., vol. 9(11), pp. 1156, 2017. - doi:10.3390/rs9111156
C. Bentes, A. Frost, D. Velotto, B. Tings, “Ship-Iceberg discrimination with convolutional neural networks in high resolution SAR images,” Proc. of EUSAR, 2016.
Iceberg Classifier Challenge 2018 in Machine Learning, https://www.kaggle.com/c/statoil-iceberg-classifier-challenge
Citation note:
Heiselberg H.: Ship-Iceberg Detection & Classification in Sentinel-1 SAR Images. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 14, No. 1, doi:10.12716/1001.14.01.30, pp. 235-241, 2020

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