Journal is indexed in following databases:



2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7



HomePage
 




 


 

ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)
 

 

 

Editor-in-Chief

Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann
 

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
www http://www.transnav.eu
e-mail transnav@umg.edu.pl
Cyber Threats for Present and Future Commercial Shipping
1 Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
ABSTRACT: Cyber-attacks are extremely dangerous for all operations relaying upon it-technologies. Today shipping businesses cannot operated without processing large amounts of information. Four biggest shipping companies suffered break-down in their operations after they were struck by malware. International Maritime Organization also was struck by cyber-attack which took its website down. Maritime community noticed rise in cyber-attacks on virtually all computer-based systems on board of vessels. For manned vessels risks to safety of navigation are mitigated by presence of crew on board but remain financial and reputational losses. Introduction of remotely controlled and fully autonomous unmanned vessels will increase seriousness of threats. Cyber-attack may severely hamper ship’s operability or even lead to complete loss of control. International community is developing several countermeasures to protect commercial shipping presently and in future.
REFERENCES
AGCS. Safety and Shipping Review 2022.p.9. Munich 2022
Balduzzi M., Pasta A., Wilhoit K., A Security Evaluation of AIS Automated Identification System, https://www.madlab.it/papers/ais_acsac14.pdf
Direnzo III J., Drumhiller N. K., Roberts F. S., Issues in Maritime Cyber Security, p.20,23. Westphalia Press, Washington D.C. 2017
Finnish National Emergency Supply Organization, The Maritime Transport Pool, Maritime Cybersecurity-Best Practices for Vessels, p.5, Helsinki 2021
IALA Guideline G1117 VHF Data Exchange System (VDES) Overview Edition 3.0, electronic edition, Saint Germain en Laye, 2022.
IMO, International Convention of Safety of Life at Sea (1974), Electronic Edition 2020, London
IMO, Resolution MSC.252(83) Adoption of the Revised Performance Standards for Integrated Navigation Systems (INS), London, 2007
INTERTANKO, Jamming and spoofing of Global Navigational Satellite System (GPS), p.5,14, London 2019
Lind M., Michaelides M., Ward R., Watson R. T., Maritime Informatics, p.43, Springer, Cham 2021 - doi:10.1007/978-3-030-50892-0
National Institute of Standards and Technology, US Department of Commerce, Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security, p. 2-16,2-17, Gaithersburg, 2015
Pawelski J., (2022) Barriers impending introduction of autonomous vessels. Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie 72 (144), p.39, Szczecin 2022
https://blog.geogarage.com/2017/12/nightmare-scenario-ship-critical.html,accessed 10.02.2023
https://rntfnd.org/2017/11/25/hackers-took-full-control-of-container-ships-navigation-systems-for-10-hours-ihs-fairplay/,accessed 02.02.2023
https://vesselautomation.com/maritime-cyber-attacks/,accessed 10.02.2023
https://www.bimco.org/contracts-and-clauses/bimco-clauses/current/cyber-security-clause-2019,accessed 20.01.2023
https://www.blackhat.com/docs/asia-14/materials/Balduzzi/Asia-14-Balduzzi-AIS-Exposed-Understanding-Vulnerabilities-And-Attacks.pdf,accessed 21.01.2023
https://www.csoonline.com/article/3218104/stuxnet-explained-the-first-known-cyberweapon.html,accessed 02.02.2023
https://www.cybersecurity-review.com/news-july-2020/maritime-cyber-attacks-increase-by-900-in-three-years/,accessed 04.02.2023
https://www.darkreading.com/attacks-breaches/plcs-possessed-researchers-create-undetectable-rootkit,accessed 17.02.2023
https://www.darkreading.com/threat-intelligence/stealthy-new-plc-hack-jumps-the-air-gap,accessed 11.02.2023
https://www.darkreading.com/vulnerabilities-threats/hijacking-a-plc-using-its-own-network-features,accessed 09.02.2023
https://www.defenseone.com/technology/2015/08/hacker-cracks-satellite-communications-network/118915/,accessed 17.02.2023
https://gcaptain.com/inmarsat-shipboard-communication-platform-found-vulnerable-to-hacking/,accessed 08.02.2023
https://gcaptain.com/international-maritime-organization-hit-by-cyber-attack/,accessed 17.02.2023
https://www.gpsworld.com/spoofing-in-the-black-sea-what-really-happened/,accessed 12.02.2023
https://www.iala-aism.org/e-bulletin/enhanced-radar-positioning-system/,accessed 15.02.2023
https://www.ibm.com/blogs/internet-of-things/what-is-the-iot/,accessed 15.02.2023
https://www.inmarsat.com/en/news/latest-news/maritime/2022/fleet-secure-cybercrime-unified-threat-management.html,accessed 14.02.2023
https://www.iua.co.uk/IUA_Member/Clauses/eLibrary/Clauses_Search.aspx?CAT=PAC,accessed 08.02.2023
https://www.madlab.it/papers/ais_acsac14.pdf,accessed 10.02.2023
https://www.missionsecure.com/resources/comprehensive-guide-to-maritime-security-ebook, accessed 15.022023
https://www.otorio.com/blog/maritime-port-cyber-security-the-achilles-heel-of-the-global-economy/,accessed 17.02.2023
https://www.pentestpartners.com/security-blog/hacking-tracking-stealing-and-sinking-ships/,accessed 14.02.2023
https://www.techopedia.com/iiot-vs-iot-the-bigger-risks-of-the-industrial-internet-of-things/2/34394#:~:text=The%20defining%20difference%20between%20Internet%20of%20Things%20%28IoT%29,as%20manufacturing%2C%20supply%20chain%20monitoring%20and%20management%20systems., accessed 07.02.2023
Citation note:
Pawelski J.: Cyber Threats for Present and Future Commercial Shipping. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 17, No. 2, doi:10.12716/1001.17.02.01, pp. 261-267, 2023
Authors in other databases:

File downloaded 204 times








Important: TransNav.eu cookie usage
The TransNav.eu website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the TransNav.eu website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony