Journal is indexed in following databases:

2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
Correlation of Virtual Aids to Navigation to the Physical Environment
1 World Maritime University, Malmö, Sweden
2 GMATEK, Inc., Annapolis, MD, USA
3 Hochschule Wismar, University of Applied Sciences: Technology, Business and Design, Wismar, Germany
ABSTRACT: Virtual electronic aids to navigation are being introduced into the present short range aids to navigation system in the form of Automated Information System radio-based aids. Research is also underway into the development of their equivalents for use in regions that feature hostile environments, are poorly charted and lack any infrastructure whatsoever to support traditional or radio navigation aids. Such aids are entirely virtual in nature and exist only as a digital data object that resides within an electronic navigation chart for display to mariners through an Electronic Chart Display and Information System. They are at present experimental in nature, and are not intended to replace existing physical or radio-based aids to navigation. Results of research are described in terms of fulfilling traditional navigation aid functions and the development of new functions that are only possible using virtual aids. Their advantages in design and implementation are highlighted, as are their limitations and shortcomings as compared to present methodologies. Notable, however, is the approach used to overcome limitations and shortcomings by considering attributes of the physical environment to ensure their proper location and display of correct characteristics. Such an approach is unique in the modern world, yet it emulates ancient methods of navigation using known landmarks and terrain features.
Baldauf 2008. Baldauf, M.; Benedict, K.; Motz, F.; Wilske,E.; Grundevik, P. (2008). Aspects of Technical Reliability of Integrated Navigation Systems and Human Element in Case of Collision Avoidance. In: Proceedings of the Navigation Conference–Navigation and Location: Here we are! Church House, Westminster, London (UK), 28-30 October 2008
Biancomano 1998. Vincent J. Biancomano and Scott W. Leyshon, Practical Tropospheric Model for VHF/UHF Propagation, National Weather Digest, http://www.nwas. org/digest/papers/1998/Vol22No2/Pg15-Biancomano.pdf
Forssell B. 2009. The dangers of GPS/GNSS. Coordinates, February 2009, pp. 6-8
Gibbons 2014. Glen Gibbons, GLONASS Suffers Temporary System wide Outage; Multi-GNSS Receiver Overcomes Problem, Inside GNSS, April 2, 2014, http://www. /3979
Grabowski 2012. Joseph C. Grabowski, Personal Privacy Jammers: Locating Jersey PPDs Jamming GBAS Safety-of-Life Signals, GPS World, April 1, 2012, http://gpsworld .com/ personal-privacy-jammers-12837/
IALA G1028. Guideline No. 1028, Automatic Identification System (AIS), pg. 8, Volume 1, Part I (Operational Issues)
IALA G1062. Guideline No. 1062-Establishment of AIS as an Aid to Navigation, Edition 1, pg. 6, December 2008.
IALA G1081. Guideline No. 1081-Virtual Aids to Navigation, Edition 1, pg. 7, March 2010.
IALA O143. O-143, IALA Recommendation on Virtual Aids to Navigation, pg. 5, March 2010.
IALA PS1. IALA Product Specification 1xx, AtoN Information. Draft 0.0.5 – June 2013.
IHO SP44. IHO Standards for Hydrographic Surveys. Special Publication 44, Fifth Edition, February 2008.
ITU 2007. REPORT ITU-R M.2123, Long range detection of automatic identification system (AIS) messages under various tropospheric propagation conditions, (2007), pg. 32, Appendix 5 AIS propagation observations – Ducting.
Lewald 2015. Lewald D. Marine Transportation Systems CG-5PW. Office of Navigation Systems CG-NAV. Inland Waterways Conference 2015. http://www.navcen.uscg. gov/pdf/AIS/FAQ/16/Lewald_IWC_20150304.pdf
Marinetraffic VIRT. ships/shipid:853410/mmsi:995126010/imo:0/vessel:TARAPUNGA_ROCK_VIRT
Middleton 2014. Hide and Seek, Managing Automatic Identification System vulnerabilities, Coast Guard Proceedings, Winter 2014-2015, pg. 50.
MSC 82. MSC 82/24/Add.2. Annex 24, Res. MSC.232(82) (adopted on 5 December 2006) Adoption of the Revised Performance Standards for Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS).
NOAA 2014. Office of the Chief Information Officer, IT Security Office, 15 Sept. 2014, https://www.csp.
NOAA 2014a. NOAA Office of Coast Survey, Navigation Industry Day, 10 October 2014, Annapolis, MD
NOAA 2015. U.S. Arctic Nautical Charting Plan. Office of Coast Survey. Marine Chart Division. June 5, 2015. 15.
OCS 2014. NOAA Office of Coast Survey, Nautical Charts and Pubs, Symbols for AIS ATON. http://www.nautical
Radgowski 2014. Capts. J. Rogowski and K. Tiongson, Cyberspace-the Imminent Operational Domain, Coast Guard Proceedings, Winter 2014-2015, pg. 18.
Simonite 2013. Tom Simonite, Ship Tracking Hack Makes Tankers Vanish from View, MIT Technology Review, October 18, 2013.
Smith 2014. CAPT Scott J. Smith, 21st Century Waterway, Future of Navigation, eNavigation Conference, 12-13 Nov.2014, Seattle, Washington.
Suman et al 2015. Stefano Suman; Carl L. Kaiser; Michael V. Jakuba; James C. Kinsey, Integration and algorithm development for forward looking imaging sonars on hybrid and autonomous underwater robots, OCEANS 2015 - MTS/IEEE, Washington. IEEE Conf. Publications, pp. 1-6
Thompson 2014. Brittany M. Thompson, GPS Spoofing and Jamming-A global concern for all vessels, Coast Guard Proceedings, Winter 2014-2015, pg. 50.
USCG 2005. United States Coast COMDTINST M16500.7A. Aids to Navigation Manual – Administration. Short Range Aids to Navigation Program. 02 MAR 2005. B.46. 4-5.
USCG 2005a. ibid. 9-1, 9-3.
USCG 2005b. ibid. 1-5.
USCG 2005c. ibid. 3-1.
USCG 2010. US Coast Guard Aids to Navigation Manual, Technical, COMDTINST M16500.3A.
USCG 2014, News Release, Coast Guard Testing Nation’s First “Virtual” Aids to Navigation in San Francisco Bay in Effort to Enhance Safety, August 4, 2014, 11th District Southwest Public Affairs.
USCG 2015. US Coast Guard Navigation Center, Automatic Identification System, How AIS Works, http://www.
Windward 2014. AIS Data on the High Seas: An Analysis of the Magnitude and Implications of Growing Data Manipulation at Sea,
Wright and Baldauf 2014. Wright R.G and Baldauf M. Collaborative Navigation through the Establishment and Distribution of Electronic Aids to Navigation in Real Time. Joint Navigation Conference, Institute of Navigation (ION); June 2014, Orlando, FL.
Wright and Baldauf 2015. Wright R.G and Baldauf M. A Georeferencing Approach to Real-time Virtual Aids to Navigation Verification. Proc. 28th International Technical Meeting of the ION Satellite Division, GNSS+ 2015. Tampa, FL, USA. 14-18 September 2015.
Wright and Zimmerman 2015. Wright R.G. and Zimmerman C. “Vector Data Extraction from Forward-Looking Sonar Imagery for Hydrographic Survey and Hazard to Navigation Detection”, Proc. IEEE/MTS Oceans Conference, Washington D.C., 19-22 October 2015.
Zaragoza, S 2013. University of Texas at Austin, S. Zaragoza, Spoofing a Superyacht at Sea, 30 July 2013, http://www. 07/30/spoofing-a-superyacht-at-sea/
Zhang, T et. al 2008. Tiedong Zhang; Yongjie Pang; Dapeng Jiang; Wenjing Zeng, Location and mapping for AUV Using A forward-looking sonar, 7th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, 2008. WCICA 2008. IEEE Conference Publications pp 9083 - 9088, DOI: 10.1109/WCICA.2008.4594365
Citation note:
Wright R.G., Baldauf M.: Correlation of Virtual Aids to Navigation to the Physical Environment. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 10, No. 2, doi:10.12716/1001.10.02.11, pp. 287-299, 2016
Authors in other databases:
R. Glenn Wright:

Other publications of authors:

M. Baldauf, R. Baumler, A. Ölçer, T. Nakazawa, K. Benedict, S. Fischer, M. Schaub
K. Benedict, M. Kirchhoff, M. Gluch, S. Fischer, M. Schaub, M. Baldauf, S. Klaes
A. Kataria, E.H. Holder, G.P. Praetorius, M. Baldauf, J.-U. Schröder-Hinrichs
K. Benedict, M. Kirchhoff, M. Gluch, S. Fischer, M. Schaub, M. Baldauf
M. Baldauf, S. Fischer, M. Kitada, R.A. Mehdi, M.A. Al-Quhali, M. Fiorini

File downloaded 987 times

Important: cookie usage
The website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony