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2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
Analysis and Optimisation of Best Practice for Proper Lookout at Night
1 Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
ABSTRACT: A significant proportion of accidents appear to be caused by a lack of maintaining a ‘proper lookout’ on a ship’s bridge. The root cause for these accidents could be the result of watchkeeper’s lack of awareness of requirements to maintain a proper lookout. This paper utilises the authors’ proposed definition of this term and then discusses the outputs from a study on improving watchkeeper behaviour carried out in ship bridge simulators, using eye tracking devices. The study involves applying the proposed method of carrying out visual search scans together with underlining distractions caused by Multifunction Displays (MFDs) found on modern ship bridges. Based on the findings, the paper evaluates the impact of the proposed scan method for maintaining a proper lookout, reduction in distractions caused by MFDs and discusses how it is almost impossible to achieve a complete dark adaptation with the presence of MFDs and other lighting on modern ship bridges. This research offers a solution to control these risks through risk assessment, together with training and education for watchkeepers to overcome these issues. This study is expected to contribute significantly to improving watchkeeper’s behaviour in maintaining lookout and application of the proposed scan method.
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Citation note:
Khalique A., Bury A., Loughney S.: Analysis and Optimisation of Best Practice for Proper Lookout at Night. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 18, No. 2, doi:10.12716/1001.18.02.12, pp. 357-367, 2024
Authors in other databases:
Abdul Khalique: Scopus icon57226134994 Scholar iconSyyz1a8AAAAJ
Alan Bury:

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