ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
www http://www.transnav.eu
e-mail transnav@umg.edu.pl
A Multiple Case Study of METI Cybersecurity Education and Training: A Basis for the Development of a Guiding Framework for Educational Approaches
ABSTRACT: Cyberattacks have become a serious global concern, effecting enormous losses to different sectors. In the shipping business, major companies report violations to their operations’ integrity and security, and losing great amounts of money. While the International Maritime Organization (IMO), through the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) 1978, as amended, is yet to release a standard for the cybersecurity education and training of seafarers, some maritime education and training institutions (METIs) have acted proactively and included cybersecurity knowledge and skills in their curricular offerings. This study looked into the cybersecurity course offerings of four METIs that served as the case studies of the researchers. In particular, the following objectives were addressed: the cybersecurity knowledge and skills included in their curriculum; the importance of the cybersecurity knowledge and skills to seafarers; and the educational approaches of the METIs in delivering their topics on cybersecurity. The first and third objectives were answered using different sources of qualitative data, including document analysis, interview and direct observation. The quantitative approach, in the form of a survey questionnaire, was used to address the second objective. The METIs, though not the same in content, were found to have included cybersecurity knowledge and skills in their curriculum. These knowledge and skills were perceived to be very important by seafarers. Similar to the content of their courses, the METIs delivered their cybersecurity courses by employing varied educational approaches. To address the gap on the lack of cybersecurity course design and delivery minimum standards, a framework in the shape of a lantern is developed and proposed to guide maritime courses designers, in particular, and other course designers, in general.
Adkisson, C., & McCoy, L. P. (2006). A study of teachers’ perceptions of high school mathematics instructional methods. Studies in teaching, 1-6.
Ahvenjärvi, S. (2018). Addressing cyber security in training of the mariner of the future - the CYMET project. In International Symposium on Integrated Ship’s Information Systems & Marine Traffic Engineering Conference.
Androjna, A., Brcko, T., Pavic, I., & Greidanus, H. (2020). Assessing Cyber Challenges of Maritime Navigation. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 8(10), 776. https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1312/8/10/776 - doi:10.3390/jmse8100776
Ani, U. D., He, H., & Tiwari, A. (2019). Human factor security: evaluating the cybersecurity capacity of the industrial workforce. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 21(1), 2-35. - doi:10.1108/JSIT-02-2018-0028
Baik, C., Larcombe, W., Brooker, A., Wyn, J., Allen, L., Brett, M., Field, R., & James, R. (2017). Enhancing Student Mental Wellbeing: A Handbook for Academic Educators
Bates, A. W. (2015). Teaching in a digital age: Guidelines for designing teaching and learning. BCampus.
Bearman, M., & Dawson, P. (2013). Qualitative synthesis and systematic review in health professions education. Medical Education, 47(3), 252-260. - doi:10.1111/medu.12092
Ben-Asher, N., & Gonzalez, C. (2015, 2015/07/01/). Effects of cyber security knowledge on attack detection. Computers in Human Behavior, 48, 51-61. - doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.039
Biggs, J. (2003). Aligning teachning for constructing learning. Higher Education Academy, 1(4), 1-4.
Boyatzis, R. E., & Kolb, D. A. (1991, 1991/01/01). Assessing Individuality in Learning: the learning skills profile. Educational Psychology, 11(3-4), 279-295. - doi:10.1080/0144341910110305
Burley, D. L., Eisenberg, J., & Goodman, S. E. (2014). Would cybersecurity professionalization help address the cybersecurity crisis? Commun. ACM, 57(2), 24–27. - doi:10.1145/2556936
Burrell, D. N., Finch, A., Simmons, J., & Burton, S. L. (2015). The Innovation and Promise of STEM-Oriented Cybersecurity Charter Schools in Urban Minority Communities in the United States as a Tool to Create a Critical Business Workforce. In New Threats and Countermeasures in Digital Crime and Cyber Terrorism (pp. 271-285). IGI Global. - doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-8345-7.ch015
Caponi, S. L., & Belmont, K. B. (2015). Maritime cybersecurity: a growing threat goes unanswered. Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal, 27(1), 16.
Carlton, M., Levy, Y., Ramim, M., & Terrell, S. (2015). Development of the MyCyberSkills™ iPad app: A scenarios-based, hands-on measure of non-IT professionals’ cybersecurity skills. Proceedings of the Pre-International Conference of Information Systems (ICIS) SIGSEC-Workshop on Information Security and Privacy (WISP) 2015.
Chao, R.-J., & Chen, Y.-H. (2009, 2009/09/01/). Evaluation of the criteria and effectiveness of distance e-learning with consistent fuzzy preference relations. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(7), 10657-10662. - doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2009.02.047
Chi, M. T. (2006). Two approaches to the study of experts’ characteristics. The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance, 21-30. - doi:10.1017/CBO9780511816796.002
Chicioreanu, T. D., & Amza, C. G. (2018). Adapting your teaching to accommodate the Net Generation/Z-Generation of learners. The International Scientific Conference eLearning and Software for Education.
Choi, M., Levy, Y., & Hovav, A. (2013). The role of user computer self-efficacy, cybersecurity countermeasures awareness, and cybersecurity skills influence on computer misuse. Proceedings of the Pre-International Conference of Information Systems (ICIS) SIGSEC–Workshop on Information Security and Privacy (WISP).
Chudowsky, N., Glaser, R., & Pellegrino, J. W. (2001). Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. National Academy Press.
Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
Daum, O. (2019). Cyber security in the maritime sector. J. Mar. L. & Com., 50, 1.
Davis, B., Carmean, C., & Wagner, E. D. (2009). The evolution of the LMS: From management to learning. Santa Rosa, CA: e-Learning Guild.
deLeon, L., & Killian, J. (2000, 2000/01/01). Comparing Modes of Delivery: Classroom and On-Line (and Other) Learning. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 6(1), 5-18. - doi:10.1080/15236803.2000.12022092
Dillon, H., & VanDeGrift, T. (2021, 2021/07/26). Creating an Inclusive Engineering Student Culture Through Diverse Teams: Instructor-led and Student-led Approaches Virtual Conference. https://peer.asee.org/36871
Fisher, D., & Muirhead, P. (2005). Practical teaching skills for maritime instructors. WMU publications.
Flick, U. (2018). Doing Triangulation and Mixed Methods. In. SAGE Publications Ltd. - doi:10.4135/9781529716634
Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., & Marshall, S. (2008). A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education: Enhancing academic practice. Routledge. - doi:10.4324/9780203891414
Furnell, S. (2021, 2021/01/01/). The cybersecurity workforce and skills. Computers & Security, 100, 102080. - doi:10.1016/j.cose.2020.102080
Ha, E.-H., & Lim, E. J. (2018, 2018/05/01/). Peer-Led Written Debriefing Versus Instructor-Led Oral Debriefing: Using Multimode Simulation. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 18, 38-46. - doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2018.02.002
Heering, D., Maennel, O., & Venables, A. (2021). Shortcomings in cybersecurity education for seafarers. In Developments in Maritime Technology and Engineering (pp. 49-61). CRC Press. - doi:10.1201/9781003216582-06
Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Duncan, R. G., & Chinn, C. A. (2007, 2007/04/26). Scaffolding and Achievement in Problem-Based and Inquiry Learning: A Response to Kirschner, Sweller, and. Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 99-107. - doi:10.1080/00461520701263368
STCW Inc. 2010 Manila Amendments, (2017).
Irons, A. (2019). Delivering cybersecurity education effectively. In Cybersecurity Education for Awareness and Compliance (pp. 135-157). IGI Global. - doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-7847-5.ch008
Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (2019). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage publications.
Kala, N., & Balakrishnan, M. (2019). Cyber Preparedness in Maritime Industry. Int. J. Sci. Technol. Adv, 5, 19-28.
Karahalios, H. (2020, 2020/12/01). Appraisal of a Ship’s Cybersecurity efficiency: the case of piracy. Journal of Transportation Security, 13(3), 179-201. - doi:10.1007/s12198-020-00223-1
Kirschner, P., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why unguided learning does not work: An analysis of the failure of discovery learning, problem-based learning, experiential learning and inquiry-based learning. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. - doi:10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1
Läänemets, U., & Kalamees-Ruubel, K. (2013). The taba-tyler rationales. Journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Curriculum Studies (JAAACS), 9(2).
Levy, Y. (2005). A case study of management skills comparison in online and on-campus MBA programs. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education (IJICTE), 1(3), 1-20. - doi:10.4018/jicte.2005070101
Light, G., Calkins, S., & Cox, R. (2009). Learning and teaching in higher education: The reflective professional. Sage.
Malik, M., Fatima, G., & Sarwar, A. (2017). E-Learning: Students' Perspectives about Asynchronous and Synchronous Resources at Higher Education Level. Bulletin of Education and Research, 39(2), 183-195.
Morgan, S. (2020). Cybercrime to cost the world $10.5 trillion annually by 2025. Cybercrime Magazine, 13(11).
Mraković, I., & Vojinović, R. (2019). Maritime cyber security analysis–how to reduce threats? Transactions on maritime science, 8(01), 132-139. - doi:10.7225/toms.v08.n01.013
Murati, R., & Ceka, A. (2017). The use of technology in educational teaching. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(6), 197-199.
Palupi, D. (2018). What Type of Curriculum Development Models Do We Follow? An Indonesia’s 2013 Curriculum Case. Indonesian Journal of Curriculum and Educational Technology Studies, 6(2), 98-105. - doi:10.15294/ijcets.v6i2.26954
Print, M. (1993). Curriculum development and design / Murray Print. Allen & Unwin.
Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education. Routledge. - doi:10.4324/9780203507711
Rashid, A., Danezis, G., Chivers, H., Lupu, E., Martin, A., Lewis, M., & Peersman, C. (2018). Scoping the Cyber Security Body of Knowledge. IEEE Security & Privacy, 16(3), 96-102. - doi:10.1109/MSP.2018.2701150
Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers. Wiley-Blackwell.
Robson, C., & McCartan, K. (2016). Real world research : a resource for users of social research methods in applied settings : fourth edition. John Wiley & Sons.
Salah, K., Hammoud, M., & Zeadally, S. (2015). Teaching Cybersecurity Using the Cloud. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 8(4), 383-392. - doi:10.1109/TLT.2015.2424692
Schlesinger, S. L., Heuwieser, W., & Schüller, L.-K. (2021). Comparison of Self-Directed and Instructor-Led Practice Sessions for Teaching Clinical Skills in Food Animal Reproductive Medicine. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 48(3), 310-318. - doi:10.3138/jvme.2019-0040
Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2007, 2007/05/15). Science Learning in Special Education: The Case for Constructed Versus Instructed Learning. Exceptionality, 15(2), 57-74. - doi:10.1080/09362830701294144
Smith, A., Ling, P., & Hill, D. (2006). The adoption of multiple modes of delivery in Australian universities. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 3(2), 4-19. - doi:10.53761/
Stassen, M., Doherty, K., & Poe, M. (2001). Course-based review and assessment: Methods for understanding student learning www.umass.edu/oapa/sites/default/files/pdf/handbooks/course_based_assessment_handbook.pdf
Tadlaoui, M. A., & Chekou, M. (2021). A blended learning approach for teaching python programming language: towards a post pandemic pedagogy. International Journal of Advanced Computer Research, 11(52), 13. - doi:10.19101/IJACR.2020.1048120
Tam, K., Moara-Nkwe, K., & Jones, K. D. (2021). The use of cyber ranges in the maritime context: Assessing maritime-cyber risks, raising awareness, and providing training. Maritime Technology and Research, 3(1), 16-30. - doi:10.33175/mtr.2021.241410
Tang, C., & Biggs, J. (2007). Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does. Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
Trigwell, K. (2006). An analysis of the relations between learning and teaching approaches. Lifelong learning: Concepts and contexts, 108-116.
Wehr, J. (1988, 1988/06//). Instructor-led or computer-based: which will work best for you? Training & Development Journal, 42(6), 18+. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A6919245/AONE?u=anon~7a8d862b&sid=googleScholar&xid=a4d3fff8
Xu, L., Huang, D., & Tsai, W. T. (2014). Cloud-Based Virtual Laboratory for Network Security Education. IEEE Transactions on Education, 57(3), 145-150. - doi:10.1109/TE.2013.2282285
Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research and applications. Sage.
Citation note:
Bacasdoon J., Bolmsten J.: A Multiple Case Study of METI Cybersecurity Education and Training: A Basis for the Development of a Guiding Framework for Educational Approaches. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 16, No. 2, doi:10.12716/1001.16.02.15, pp. 319-334, 2022

File downloaded 34 times

Important: TransNav.eu cookie usage
The TransNav.eu website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the TransNav.eu website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony