ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
www http://www.transnav.eu
e-mail transnav@am.gdynia.pl
Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure
1 Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
ABSTRACT: The paper presents threat assessment of potential terrorist attacks to the transport infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS). ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a well-defined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %), and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %). There were 90,3% of incidents involve land transport (74,5% ? vehicles, 9,5% ? buses, 6,3% - rail) covered the 41-year period 1967-2007 in the USA. Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level, furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose.
Aleksandrowicz, T. R. 2008. International terrorism, Warsaw.
Coburn, A. and Paul, M. and Vyas, W. and Woo, G. and Yeo W. 2012, Terrorism Risk in the Post-9/11 Era. A 10-Year Retrospective. Risk Management Solutions, Inc. Newark, USA.
CTC. Counter Terrorism Centre of the Internal Security Agency in The Republic of Poland. http://www.antyterroryzm.gov.pl/portal/eng/265/621/COUNTER__TERRORIST_CENTRE_CTC.html.
Commission Implementing Decision 2011/453/EU of 13 July 2011 adopting guidelines for reporting by the Member States under Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (notified under document C2011/4947). OJ of the EU, L 193/48, 49 of 23/7/2011.
Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport. OJ of EU, L 207 , 06/08/2010 P. 0001 – 0013.
Encyclopaedia PWN. 1982. PWN, Warsaw.
Global terrorism index. Capturing the Impact of Terrorism for the Last Decade. IEP. Dec 4th 2012. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/2012-Global-Terrorism-Index-Report1.pdf.
Makarski, A. 2010. Genesis, activities, rules and experiences after one year functioning of Anti-Terrorist Centre. Review of Internal Security, No 2. Anti-Terrorist Centre, Warsaw. http://www.abw.gov.pl/portal/pl/273/642/Przeglad_Bezpieczenstwa_Wewnetrznego_nr_2_2_2010.html.
Mandate 453 EN (2009). Standardization mandate addressed to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI in the field of information and communication technologies to support the interoperability of co-operative systems for Intelligent Transport in the European Community. Brussels, 6th October 2009. DG ENTR/D4.
Mirowski, W. 1996. Study on Polish country infrastructure. The equipment areas of social infrastructure. T. III. PAN Instytut Rozwoju Wsi i Rolnictwa, Warszawa.
NATO 2010. Strategic Concept for the Defense and Security of The Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Adopted by Heads of State and Government in Lisbon, Nov. 2010. http://www.nato.int/lisbon2010/strategic-concept-2010-eng.pdf.
Olechów, B. 2002. Terrorism in after bipolar Word. Adam Marszałek, Toruń.
Pawłowski, A. 1994. Terrorism in Europe of XIX & XX century. Lubuski Komitet Upowszechniania Prasy, Zielona Góra.
Regulation (EEC) No 1108/70 of the Council of 4 June 1970 introducing an accounting system for expenditure on infrastructure in respect of transport by rail, road and inland waterway. OJ L 130, 15.6.1970, p. 4–14 .
Regulation (EEC) No 2598/70 of the Commission of 18 December 1970 specifying the items to be included under the various headings in the forms of accounts shown in Annex I to Council Regulation (EEC) No 1108/70 of 4 June 1970. OJ L 278, 23.12.1970, p. 1–5.
Regulation (EC) No 851/2006 of 9 June 2006 specifying the items to be included under the various headings in the forms of accounts shown in Annex I to Council Regulation (EEC) No 1108/70. OJ L 158, 10.6.2006, p. 3–8.
Rydzkowski, W. and Wojewódzka-Król, K. (red.). 2008. Transport. PWN, Warszawa.
Schmid, A. 1988. Political Terrorism: A New Giude to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories and Literature. New Brunswich, NJ 1988.
Schmid, A. and Jongman, A. 1988. Political terrorism. SWIDOC, Amsterdam.
Steinhäusler, F., Edwards F. 2005. NATO and Terrorism: Catastrophic Terrorism and First Responders. Springer, 2005.
Strategy of National Security for Republic of Poland, Warsaw, 2007.
Targets for Terrorsim: Ground Transportation. July 13, 2006, http://www.cfr.org/homeland-security/targets-terrorism-ground-transportation/p10198.
The act from 16 April 2004 – Penal Code (Kodeks Karny) and others acts. OJ. 2004, No 93, pos. 889.
The report of Aon Global Risk Consulting, http://forsal.pl/wiadomosci/polska/341600.html http: //www.aon.com/poland, 2008.
The report of UNIC from 10.02.2012, http://www.unic.un.org.pl/terroryzm/definicje.php.
Terrorist Attacks and Transport Systems. Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California. 2010.http://www.uctc.net/access/28/AccessComment/TerroristAttacksandTransportSystems.pdf.
Terrorist attacks mapped around the world. 2012. Institute for Economics & Peace, New York. 13 December 2012. http://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2012/12/daily-chart-0.
US LRN. 2008. Light Rail Now Project. http://www.lightrailnow.org/features/f_lrt_2008-06a.htm.
Zeng, D. and Chawathe, S. and Wang, F.Y. 2007. Protecting Transportation Infrastructure. ITS Department. IEEE Intelligent Systems, July/August 2007.
Citation note:
Nowacki G.: Threat Assessment of Potential Terrorist Attacks to the Transport Infrastructure. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 8, No. 2, doi:10.12716/1001.08.02.07, pp. 219-227, 2014

Other publications of authors:

File downloaded 1143 times

Important: TransNav.eu cookie usage
The TransNav.eu website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the TransNav.eu website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony