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Maritime Delimitation in the Baltic Sea: What Has Already Been Accomplished?
1 Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
ABSTRACT: To write a legal paper for an audience consisting primarily of experts in the field of navigation, transport, ocean engineering and maritime technology is not an easy task. Finding an appropriate box to tick when having to indicate the topic of the contribution when the title of the present contribution was submitted to the organizers of the conference, represented already a first hurdle. In the list of about 90 possibilities, not one really fitted the subject matter of the present contribution. This was particularly worrisome, because the instructions here read: ?Choose maximum three topics?. Consequently, I would particularly like to thank the organizers of the conference for having stretched somewhat the purview of the conference in order to accom-modate a legal paper. The next difficulty, of course, rests on the shoulders of the present author, for he will have to write a legal paper understandable to an audience of which not all members may be familiar with the international law of the sea. Having served as a regional expert on maritime delimitation with respect to the Baltic Sea in a world-wide project initiated by the American Society of International Law, and still ongoing today, a good number of publications by the present author on this topic have appeared in legal journals or specialized books. Despite the normal practice in legal papers of making extensive use of footnotes, the pre-sent paper will only make use of a minimum number of other references, in order to enhance its readability for non-lawyers. Instead, it will provide a listing in annex of the writings by the present author on the subject to which the interested reader, wanting to find out more concrete guidelines and information, may readily turn. The present paper, first of all, is not concerned with maritime law -- a term to be found in the above-mentioned list -- but with the law of the sea. These two concepts, even though they might have been confused in the past, are today clearly distinguished from one another. The law of the sea concerns the rules of international law governing the different maritime zones and the activities carried out there. It forms a branch of international law, for it concerns mainly the relationship between states and is consequently also sometimes called ?international law of the sea? or even ?international public law of the sea?. Maritime law, on the other hand, is part of the national law of a state, for it deals with private interests at sea in general, and with the relationship between those who exploit ships and those who make use of them more particularly. It is therefore sometimes also called ?commercial maritime law?. After having clarified a few crucial law of the sea notions, the present paper tries to bring some order in the maritime boundary agreements concluded so far in the Baltic Sea. It does so by taking a major political event as caesura, namely the disappearance of the former Soviet Union from the political map of the world during 1991. Finally, some concluding remarks will try to describe the present state of affairs, while comparing it to the situation as it existed on the eve of this major political event of 1991.
REFERENCES
Franckx, E. 1988, ''New' Soviet Delimitation Agreements with its Neighbors in the Baltic Sea', Ocean Development and International Law Journal, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 143-158.
Franckx, E. 1989, 'The 1989 Maritime Boundary Delimitation Agreement Between the GDR and Poland', International Journal of Estuarine and Coastal Law, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 237-251.
Franckx, E. 1990, 'Maritime Boundaries and Regional Co-operation', International Journal of Estuarine and Coastal Law, vol. 5, no. 1-3, pp. 215-227.
Franckx, E. 1990, 'First Trijunction Point Agreed upon in the Baltic Between Poland, Sweden and the U.S.S.R.', International Journal of Estuarine and Coastal Law, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 394-397.
Franckx, E. 1991, 'International Cooperation in Respect of the Baltic Sea', in The Changing Political Structure of Europe: Aspects of International Law, eds. R. Lefeber, M. Fitzmaurice & E. W. Vierdag, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 245-277 (especially pp. 254-269).
Franckx, E. 1992, 'Maritime Boundaries and Regional Cooperation in the Baltic', International Journal of Legal Information, vol. 20, no. 1-3, pp. 18-23.
Franckx, E. 1992, 'EC Maritime Zones: The Delimitation Aspect', Ocean Development and International Law Journal, vol. 23, no. 2-3, pp. 239-258.
Franckx, E. 1993, 'Region X: Baltic Sea Maritime Boundaries', in 1 International Maritime Boundaries, eds. J. I. Charney & L. M. Alexander, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 345 368.
Franckx, E. 1993, [16 individual boundary reports (Report Numbers 10-1 until 10-12)], in 2 International Maritime Boundaries, eds. J. I. Charney & L. M. Alexander, Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 1915-2104.
Franckx, E. 1995, 'The New United Nations Law of the Sea Convention and the Problem of the Maritime Delimitation in the Baltic Sea', in Baltic Sea Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, ed. J. Bergholcs, Via Baltica, Riga, pp. 18-19.
Franckx, E. 1996, 'Finland and Sweden Complete Their Maritime Boundary in the Baltic Sea', Ocean Development and International Law Journal, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 291-314.
Franckx, E. 1996, 'Frontières maritimes dans la mer Baltique : passé, présent et futur', Espaces et Ressources Maritimes 1995, vol. 9, pp. 92-115.
Franckx, E. 1996, 'Baltic Sea: Finland-Sweden Delimitation Agreement', International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 394-400.
Franckx, E. 1996, 'Maritime Boundary Delimitation in the Baltic', in The Baltic Sea: New Developments in National Policies and International Cooperation, eds. R. Platzöder & P. Verlaan, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp. 167-177.
Franckx, E. 1996, 'Maritime Boundaries in the Baltic Sea: Past, Present and Future', Maritime Briefing, vol. 2.
Franckx, E. 1997, 'Two New Maritime Boundary Delimitation Agreements in the Eastern Baltic Sea', International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 365-376.
Franckx, E. 1997, 'Les délimitations maritimes en mer Baltique', Revue de l'Indemer, vol. 5, pp. 37-76.
Franckx, E. 1998, 'Finland-Sweden (Bogskär Area) (Report Number 10-13)', in 3 International Maritime Boundaries, eds. J. I. Charney & L. M. Alexander, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp. 2539-2555.
Franckx, E. 1998, 'Baltic Sea Update (Report Number 10-14)', in 3 International Maritime Boundaries, eds. J. I. Charney & L. M. Alexander, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp. 2557-2573.
Franckx, E. 1998, 'Two More Maritime Boundary Agreements Concluded in the Eastern Baltic Sea in 1997', International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 274 283.
Franckx, E. 1998, 'Maritime Boundaries in the Baltic', in Boundaries and Energy: Problems and Prospects, eds. G. H. Blake, M. Pratt, C. Schofield & J. A. Brown, Kluwer Law International, London, pp. 275-295.
Franckx, E. & Pauwels, A. 1998, 'Lithuanian-Russian Boundary Agreement of October 1997: To Be or Not To Be?', in Liber amicorum Günther Jaenicke: zum 85. Geburtstag, eds. V. Götz, P. Selmer & R. Wolfrum, Springer, Berlin, pp. 63-95.
Franckx, E. 2000, 'The 1998 Estonia-Sweden Maritime Boundary Agreement: Lessons to be Learned in the Area of Continuity and/or Succession of States', Ocean Development and International Law Journal, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 269-284.
Franckx, E. 2000, 'Maritime Boundaries in the Baltic Sea: Post-1991 Developments', Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 249-266.
Franckx, E. 2000, 'Maritime Boundaries in the Baltic Sea: Post-1991 Developments', VLIZ Collected Reprints: Marine and Coastal Research in Flanders, vol. 30, pp. 310-325.
Franckx, E. 2001, 'New Maritime Boundaries Concluded in the Eastern Baltic Sea Since 1998', International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 645-659.
Franckx, E. 2002, 'New Maritime Boundaries Concluded in the Eastern Baltic Sea Since 1998 (bis)', International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 263-266.
Franckx, E. 2002, [8 individual boundary reports (Report Numbers 10-15 until 10-21)], in 4 International Maritime Boundaries, eds. J. I. Charney & R. W. Smith, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, pp. 2995-3017.
Franckx, E. 2001, 'New Maritime Boundaries Concluded in the Eastern Baltic Sea Since 1998', VLIZ Collected Reprints: Marine and Coastal Research in Flanders, vol. 31, pp. 344 358.
Franckx, E. 2005, 'Region X: Baltic Sea Boundaries', in 5 International Maritime Boundaries, eds. D. A. Colson & R. W. Smith, Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden, pp. 3507-3535.
Franckx, E. & Kamga, M. 2008, 'L'existence éphémère du Traité de délimitation maritime entre la République d'Estonie et la Fédération de Russie en mer Baltique', Annuaire du Droit de la Mer 2007, vol. 12, pp. 393-423.
Franckx, E. 2010, 'Estonia-Russian Federation (Report Number 10-22)', in 6 International Maritime Boundaries, eds. D. A. Colson & R. W. Smith, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague [forthcoming]
Citation note:
Franckx E.: Maritime Delimitation in the Baltic Sea: What Has Already Been Accomplished?. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 437-442, 2012

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