Journal is indexed in following databases:

2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
VR Teleoperation to support a GPS-free Positioning System in a Marine Environment
Times cited (SCOPUS): 2
ABSTRACT: Small autonomous surface vehicles (ASV) will need both teleoperation support and redundant positioning technology to comply with expected future regulations. When at sea, they are limited by a satellite communication link with low throughput. We have designed and implemented a graphical user interface (GUI) for teleoperation using a communication link with low throughput, and one positioning system, independent of the Global Positioning System (GPS), supported by the teleoperation tool. We conducted a user study (N=16), using real-world data from a field trial, to validate our approach, and to compare two variants of the graphical user interface (GUI). The users experienced that the tool gives a good overview, and despite the connection with the low throughput, they managed through the GUI to significantly improve the positioning accuracy.
Kongsberg. (2018) Rolls-royce and finferries demonstrate world’s first fully autonomous ferry. Last accessed 10 October 2020. [Online]. Available: 12-2018-rr-and-finferries-demonstrate-worlds-first-fully-autonomousferry. aspx
Kongsberg. (2018) Technology for the ferries of the future. Last accessed 10 October 2020. [Online]. Available: news-archive/2018/technology-for-the-ferries-of-the-future/
(2018) Remote-controlled and autonomous ships in the maritime industry. Last accessed 9 September 2020. [Online]. Available: ships-paper-download.html
O. Levander, “Autonomous ships on the high seas,” IEEE Spectrum, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 26–31, 2017. - doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2017.7833502
C. Lundberg, H. I. Christensen, and A. Hedstrom, “The use of robots in harsh and unstructured field applications,” in ROMAN 2005. IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2005. IEEE, 2005, pp. 143–150.
Y. Zheng, M. J. Brudnak, P. Jayakumar, J. L. Stein, and T. Ersal, “Evaluation of a predictor-based framework in high-speed teleoperated military UGVs,” IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 2020. - doi:10.1109/THMS.2020.3018684
R. Luz, J. Corujeira, L. Grisoni, F. Giraud, J. L. Silva, and R. Ventura, “On the use of haptic tablets for UGV teleoperation in unstructured environments: System design and evaluation,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 95 431–95 442, 2019. - doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2928981
R. Murphy, “Disaster Robotics. Intelligent robotics and autonomous agents series,” The MIT Press, 2014. - doi:10.7551/mitpress/9407.001.0001
M. Lager, E. A. Topp, and J. Malec, “Robust terrain-aided navigation through sensor fusion,” in 2020 IEEE 23rd International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION). IEEE, 2020, pp. 1–8. - doi:10.23919/FUSION45008.2020.9190578
M. Lager, E. A. Topp, and J. Malec, “Remote operation of unmanned surface vessel through virtual reality-a low cognitive load approach,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality for HRI (VAM-HRI), 2018.
M. Lager and E. A. Topp, “Remote supervision of an autonomous surface vehicle using virtual reality,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 387–392, 2019. - doi:10.1016/j.ifacol.2019.08.104
S. Neumeier, N. Gay, C. Dannheim, and C. Facchi, “On the way to autonomous vehicles teleoperated driving,” in AmE 2018-Automotive meets Electronics; 9th GMM-Symposium. VDE, 2018, pp. 1–6.
S. Neumeier, P. Wintersberger, A.-K. Frison, A. Becher, C. Facchi, and A. Riener, “Teleoperation: The holy grail to solve problems of automated driving? Sure, but latency matters,” in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, 2019, pp. 186–197. - doi:10.1145/3342197.3344534
S. Lu, M. Y. Zhang, T. Ersal, and X. J. Yang, “Workload management in teleoperation of unmanned ground vehicles: Effects of a delay compensation aid on human operators’ workload and teleoperation performance,” International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, vol. 35, no. 19, pp. 1820–1830, 2019. - doi:10.1080/10447318.2019.1574059
A. Hosseini, F. Richthammer, and M. Lienkamp, “Predictive haptic feedback for safe lateral control of teleoperated road vehicles in urban areas,” in 2016 IEEE 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring). IEEE, 2016, pp. 1–7. - doi:10.1109/VTCSpring.2016.7504430
F. Chucholowski, M. Sauer, and M. Lienkamp, “Evaluation of display methods for teleoperation of road vehicles,” Journal of Unmanned System Technology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 80–85, 2016. - doi:10.21535/just.v3i3.38
T. Williams, N. Tran, J. Rands, and N. T. Dantam, “Augmented, mixed, and virtual reality enabling of robot deixis,” in the International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality, 2018. - doi:10.1007/978-3-319-91581-4_19
A. Hosseini and M. Lienkamp, “Enhancing telepresence during the teleoperation of road vehicles using hmd-based mixed reality,” in Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2016 IEEE. IEEE, 2016, pp. 1366–1373. - doi:10.1109/IVS.2016.7535568
X. Shen, Z. J. Chong, S. Pendleton, G. M. J. Fu, B. Qin, E. Frazzoli, and M. H. Ang, “Teleoperation of on-road vehicles via immersive telepresence using off-the-shelf components,” in Intelligent Autonomous Systems 13. Springer, 2016, pp. 1419–1433. - doi:10.1007/978-3-319-08338-4_102
T. Porathe, “User-centered map design,” in Usability Professionals’ Association Conference, 2007.
S. Witt, “Technologies used for navigation,” Novel Interaction Techniques for Oceangoings, University of Passau, 2017.
(2018) Unity 3d. Last accessed 29 September 2020. [Online]. Available:
(2020) Saab Kockums AB. Last accessed 29 September 2020. [Online]. Available:
(2020) WASP. Last accessed 29 January 2020. [Online]. Available:
Citation note:
Lager M., Topp E.A., Malec J.: VR Teleoperation to support a GPS-free Positioning System in a Marine Environment. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 14, No. 4, doi:10.12716/1001.14.04.01, pp. 789-798, 2020

File downloaded 374 times

Important: cookie usage
The website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony