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2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
The Use of the Lead and Line by Early Navigators in the North Sea?
1 Royal Institute of Navigation, London, United Kingdom
ABSTRACT: This paper draws attention to the lack of information as to how early North Sea sailors navigated, particularly during the one thousand year period that followed Roman times. The lead and line was the only navigational aid available for most of this period, but there is little recorded as to whether it was used simply for ensuring a ship or boat had enough water to proceed or whether, together with the knowledge it provided of the nature of the sea bed, it was used as a more positive position fixing device. The author would appreciate any information relating to navigation techniques used during this period.
Olesen, John Peter. (2008) Testing the Waters: The Role of Sounding Weights in Ancient Mediterranean Navigation. In Vol. 6, The Maritime World of Ancient Rome, pp 119-116. Published by Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome.
Strabo. (20 AD) Geography – Book IV, Chapter 4, paragraph 1
Pye, Michael (2014) The Edge of the World. How the North Sea made us who we are. Viking Press.
Crumlin Pedersen, Ole (1990) The Boats and Ships of the Angles and Jutes, in Maritime Celts, Frisians and Saxons, Sean McGrail, Ed. Council for British Archaeology
Thirslund, Søren. (2007) Viking Navigation. Roskilde.
Cooper, R W (2010) Heaving the Lead. The Journal of Navigation., Vol 63, pp 183-186. Royal Institute of Navigation, London.
Citation note:
Kemp J.F.: The Use of the Lead and Line by Early Navigators in the North Sea?. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 8, No. 4, doi:10.12716/1001.08.04.01, pp. 481-483, 2014

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