Journal is indexed in following databases:

2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
The Future of Energy in Ships and Harbors
1 University of La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
2 University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
3 University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom
ABSTRACT: In recent decades, maritime transport, hand in hand with the International Maritime Organization (OMI), has promoted a change in the energetic model in ships and harbors. The main goal of this paper is to show the most useful advances in technologies with respect to reducing gas and particle emissions, and the implementation of technologies based on renewable energies for the propulsion of ships and the energy supply in harbors. Furthermore, new hybrid renewable energy-desalination water technologies which could change the shape of water supply to the ships from near shore zones will be shown. To carry out this study, exhaustive bibliographic research was conducted, including scientific and technical papers.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Developme (UNCTAD). Review of Maritime Transport 2021. United Nations Publications: Geneva, Switzerland, 2021.
IMO. Report of the Working Group on Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships. MEPC 72/WP.7. 2018.London.
JOUNG, Tae-Hwan, Et Al. The IMO initial strategy for reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, and its follow-up actions towards 2050. Journal of International Maritime Safety, Environmental Affairs, and Shipping, 2020, vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-7. - doi:10.1080/25725084.2019.1707938
Sirimanne, S. N., Hoffman, J., Juan, W., Asariotis, R., Assaf, M., Ayala, G., ... & Premti, A. (2019, October). Review of maritime transport 2019. In United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva, Switzerland.
Halff, Antoine; Younes, Lara; Boersma, Tim. The likely implications of the new IMO standards on the shipping industry. Energy policy, 2019, vol. 126, p. 277-286. - doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2018.11.033
PSARAFTIS, Harilaos N. Market-Based measures for greenhouse gas emissions from ships: a review. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2012, vol. 11, no 2, p. 211-232. - doi:10.1007/s13437-012-0030-5
Lindstad, Haakon; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn E.; Strømman, Anders H. Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and cost by shipping at lower speeds. Energy policy, 2011, vol. 39, no 6, p. 3456-3464. - doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.03.044
Emisiones de CO2 en los barcos. Recalada (Revista de divulgación marítima). pp. 18-19; Available online: (accessed 22 Sep 2022).
AL-ENAZI, Ahad, Et Al. A review of cleaner alternative fuels for maritime transportation. Energy Reports, 2021, vol. 7, p. 1962-1985. - doi:10.1016/j.egyr.2021.03.036
Ampah, Jeffrey Dankwa, et al. Reviewing two decades of cleaner alternative marine fuels: towards IMO's decarbonization of the maritime transport sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2021, vol. 320, p. 128871. - doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.128871
Reusser, Carlos A.; Pérez Osses, Joel R. Challenges for zero-emissions ship. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 2021, vol. 9, no 10, p. 1042. - doi:10.3390/jmse9101042
VEDACHALAM, Sundaramurthy; BAQUERIZO, Nathalie; DALAI, Ajay K. Review on impacts of low sulfur regulations on marine fuels and compliance options. Fuel, 2022, vol. 310, p. 122243. - doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122243
Wu, Pei-Chi; Lin, Cherng-Yuan. Cost-benefit evaluation on promising strategies in compliance with low sulfur policy of IMO. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 2020, vol. 9, no 1, p. 3. - doi:10.3390/jmse9010003
Rutherford, Dan; Mao, Xiaoli; Comer, Bryan. Potential CO2 Reductions under the Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index. International Council on Clean Transportation Working Paper, 2020, vol. 27.
Banaei, Mohsen, et al. Cost Effective Operation of a Hybrid Zero-Emission Ferry Ship. In 2020 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG). IEEE, 2020. p. 23-28 - doi:10.1109/PEDG48541.2020.9244456
Reddy, Namireddy Praveen, et al. Zero-emission autonomous ferries for urban water transport: Cheaper, cleaner alternative to bridges and manned vessels. IEEE Electrification Magazine, 2019, vol. 7, no 4, p. 32-45. - doi:10.1109/MELE.2019.2943954
Wang, Bo, et al. Real time power management strategy for an all‐electric ship using a predictive control model. IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 2022, vol. 16, no 9, p. 1808-1821. - doi:10.1049/gtd2.12419
Alnes, Oystein; Eriksen, Sverre; Vartdal, Bjorn-Johan. Battery-powered ships: A class society perspective. IEEE Electrification Magazine, 2017, vol. 5, no 3, p. 10-21. - doi:10.1109/MELE.2017.2718823
Su, Chun-Lien; Chung, Wei-Lin; Yu, Kuen-Tyng. An energy-savings evaluation method for variable-frequency-drive applications on ship central cooling systems. IEEE Transactions on industry applications, 2013, vol. 50, no 2, p. 1286-1294. - doi:10.1109/TIA.2013.2271991
Marichal Plasencia, Graciliano Nicolás, et al. Machine Learning Models Applied to Manage the Operation of a Simple SWRO Desalination Plant and Its Application in Marine Vessels. Water, 2021, vol. 13, no 18, p. 2547. - doi:10.3390/w13182547
Barone, G., et al. Implementing the dynamic simulation approach for the design and optimization of ships energy systems: Methodology and applicability to modern cruise ships. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2021, vol. 150, p. 111488. - doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.111488
Thalis P.V. Zis, Prospects of cold ironing as an emissions reduction option, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 119, 2019, Pages 82-95. - doi:10.1016/j.tra.2018.11.003
Rolán A, Manteca P, Oktar R, Siano P. Integration of cold ironing and renewable sources in the barcelona smart port. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. 2019 Apr 11;55(6):7198-206. - doi:10.1109/TIA.2019.2910781
M. A. Ramos, C. A. Thieme, I. B. Utne, and A. Mosleh, “Autonomous systems safety: State of the art and challenges,” in Proc. 1st Int. Workshop Autonomous Systems Safety, Trondheim, Norway, Mar. 11–13, 2019, pp. 18–32.
Reddy, Namireddy Praveen, et al. An intelligent power and energy management system for fuel cell/battery hybrid electric vehicle using reinforcement learning. En 2019 IEEE transportation electrification conference and expo (ITEC). IEEE, 2019. p. 1-6. - doi:10.1109/ITEC.2019.8790451
MAN DIESEL & TURBO. Hybrid Propulsion; Flexibility and maximum efficiency optimally combined. 2017.
Alnes, Oystein; Eriksen, Sverre; Vartdal, Bjorn-Johan. Battery-powered ships: A class society perspective. IEEE Electrification Magazine, 2017, vol. 5, no 3, p. 10-21. - doi:10.1109/MELE.2017.2718823
Karimi, Siamak; Zadeh, Mehdi; Suul, Jon Are. Shore charging for plug-in battery-powered ships: Power system architecture, infrastructure, and control. IEEE Electrification Magazine, 2020, vol. 8, no 3, p. 47-61. - doi:10.1109/MELE.2020.3005699
INAL, Omer Berkehan; CHARPENTIER, Jean-Frédéric; DENIZ, Cengiz. Hybrid power and propulsion systems for ships: Current status and future challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2022, vol. 156, p. 111965. - doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.111965
Ulstein. Color Hybrid Appointed “Ship of The Year 2019”. Available: [Accessed 22 Sep 2022].
Köllner, Christiane. More Environmentally Friendly Cruise Liners?. MTZ worldwide, 2019, vol. 80, no 10, p. 10-15. - doi:10.1007/s38313-019-0123-z
Kaur, Daljit; SINGH, Manmeet; SINGH, Sharanjit. Lithium–sulfur batteries for marine applications. En Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. Elsevier, 2022. p. 549-577. - doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-91934-0.00019-3
Anwar, Sadia, et al. Towards ferry electrification in the maritime sector. Energies, 2020, vol. 13, no 24, p. 6506. - doi:10.3390/en13246506
Wang, Yifan; WRIGHT, Laurence A. A Comparative Review of Alternative Fuels for the Maritime Sector: Economic, Technology, and Policy Challenges for Clean Energy Implementation. World, 2021, vol. 2, no 4, p. 456-481. - doi:10.3390/world2040029
Van Biert, Lindert, et al. A review of fuel cell systems for maritime applications. Journal of Power Sources, 2016, vol. 327, p. 345-364. - doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.07.007
Van Hoecke, Laurens, et al. Challenges in the use of hydrogen for maritime applications. Energy & Environmental Science, 2021, vol. 14, no 2, p. 815-843. - doi:10.1039/D0EE01545H
Taner, Tolga. Alternative energy of the future: a technical note of PEM fuel cell water management. Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications, 2015, vol. 5, no 3, p. 1-4.
Ustolin, Federico; CAMPARI, Alessandro; TACCANI, Rodolfo. An Extensive Review of Liquid Hydrogen in Transportation with Focus on the Maritime Sector. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 2022, vol. 10, no 9, p. 1222. - doi:10.3390/jmse10091222
Wärtsilä.(s.f.). Viking Lady. [Accessed 22 Sep 2022].
Viking Lady offshore supply vessel. Available: [Accessed 18 May 2022].
DE-TROYA, José J., et al. Analysing the possibilities of using fuel cells in ships. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2016, vol. 41, no 4, p. 2853-2866. - doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.11.145
Coppola, Tommaso; MICOLI, Luca; TURCO, Maria. State of the art of high temperature fuel cells in maritime applications. En 2020 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM). IEEE, 2020. p. 430-435. - doi:10.1109/SPEEDAM48782.2020.9161898
Pan, Pengcheng, et al. Research progress on ship power systems integrated with new energy sources: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2021, vol. 144, p. 111048. - doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.111048
Talluri, L., Nalianda, D., & Giuliani, E. (2018). Techno economic and environmental assessment of Flettner rotors for marine propulsion. Ocena Engineering, 1-15. - doi:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2018.02.020
Neoliner 1360. URL: [Accessed 22 Sep 2022].
Wind Surf. URL: [Accessed 22 Sep 2022].
Novotny, T. (30 de Agosto de 2016). Bachelor´s degree final project. Use of alternative means of propulsion in maritime industry. Barcelona: Facultat de Náutica de Barcelona Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya.
Atkinson, G., Nguyen, H., & Binns, J. (2018). Considerations regarding the use of rigid sails on modern powered ships. Cogent Engineering, 1-20. Obtenido de EcoMarinePower. - doi:10.1080/23311916.2018.1543564
Allwright, Gavin. Commercial Wind Propulsion Solutions: Putting the ‘Sail’Back into Sailing. En Trends and Challenges in Maritime Energy Management. Springer, Cham, 2018. p. 433-443. - doi:10.1007/978-3-319-74576-3_30
Bound4Blue. [Accessed 22 Sep 2022]. URL: https://
Reche-Vilanova, Martina; HANSEN, Heikki; BINGHAM, Harry B. Performance prediction program for wind-assisted cargo ships. Journal of Sailing Technology, 2021, vol. 6, no 01, p. 91-117. - doi:10.5957/jst/2021.6.1.91
Carlton, J., et al. Future ship powering options: exploring alternative methods of ship propulsion. London: Royal Academy of Engineering, 2013.
Zapałowicz, Zbigniew; ZEŃCZAK, Wojciech. The possibilities to improve ship's energy efficiency through the application of PV installation including cooled modules. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2021, vol. 143, p. 110964. - doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.110964
Bøckmann, Eirik; Steen, Sverre; Myrhaug, Dag. Performance of a Ship Powered Purely by Renewable Energy. En International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2014. p. V08AT06A034 - doi:10.1115/OMAE2014-23368
Taşçioğlu, Ayşegül; Keser, Hilal Yıldırır. Solar energy in the logistics sector: assessments on Turkey. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 2019, vol. 5, no 2, p. 225-236. - doi:10.26710/jbsee.v5i2.822
Bacquart, Thomas, et al. Hydrogen for maritime application—Quality of hydrogen generated onboard ship by electrolysis of purified seawater. Processes, 2021, vol. 9, no 7, p. 1252. - doi:10.3390/pr9071252
Ibrahim, Alaa Emad El Din. Super Sustainability through Hydrogen Cities–An Overview.
Guilbert, Damien; Vitale, Gianpaolo. Hydrogen as a Clean and Sustainable Energy Vector for Global Transition from Fossil-Based to Zero-Carbon. Clean Technologies, 2021, vol. 3, no 4, p. 881-909. - doi:10.3390/cleantechnol3040051
Lokuketagoda, Gamini, et al. Training engineers for remotely operated ships of the future. 19th Annual General Assembly–AGA 2018, 2018, p. 207-214.
Størkersen, Kristine Vedal. Safety management in remotely controlled vessel operations. Marine Policy, 2021, vol. 130, p. 104349. - doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104349
Mofor, Linus; Nuttall, Peter; Newell, Alison. Renewable Energy Options for Shipping-Technology Brief. 2014.
Yoon, Uooyeol. Electrification of Other Transportation Systems. En The On-line Electric Vehicle. Springer, Cham, 2017. p. 261-268. - doi:10.1007/978-3-319-51183-2_18
Greaves, Deborah; Iglesias, Gregorio (ed.). Wave and tidal energy. John Wiley & Sons, 2018. - doi:10.1002/9781119014492
Padrón, Isidro, et al. Assessment of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems to supplied energy to Autonomous Desalination Systems in two islands of the Canary Archipelago. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2019, vol. 101, p. 221-230. - doi:10.1016/j.rser.2018.11.009
Bakar NN, Guerrero JM, C. Vasquez J, Bazmohammadi N, Othman M, Rasmussen BD, Al-Turki YA. Optimal Configuration and Sizing of Seaport Microgrids including Renewable Energy and Cold Ironing—The Port of Aalborg Case Study. Energies. 2022 Jan 7;15(2):431. - doi:10.3390/en15020431
Innes A, Monios J. Identifying the unique challenges of installing cold ironing at small and medium ports–The case of Aberdeen. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2018 Jul 1;62:298-313. - doi:10.1016/j.trd.2018.02.004
Fouz, DM, Carballo, R, Lopez, I, Iglesias, G, 2022. Tidal stream energy potential in the Shannon Estuary, Renewable Energy, 185, 61-74. - doi:10.1016/j.renene.2021.12.055
Sifakis N, Vichos E, Smaragdakis A, Zoulias E, Tsoutsos T. Introducing the cold‐ironing technique and a hydrogen‐based hybrid renewable energy system into ports. International Journal of Energy Research. 2022 May 15. - doi:10.1002/er.8059
Padrón, Isidro, et al. Wave Energy Potential of the Coast of El Hierro Island for the Exploitation of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC). Sustainability, 2022, vol. 14, no 19, p. 12139. - doi:10.3390/su141912139
Arnau, Pedro Antonio . COOSW project. Transnational cooperation in Lab validation for SWAC, WEC and COOL STEAM devices harnessing the ocean energy. Programme ERA-NETS. Reference ERANet17/ERY0168. 2022.
Henriksen, Michael; PICCIONI, Simon Davide Luigi; LAI, Massimo. New combined solution to harness wave energy—full renewable potential for sustainable electricity and fresh water production. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Proceedings, 2019, vol. 20, no 1, p. 10. - doi:10.3390/proceedings2019020010
Cascajo, R., García, E., Quiles, E., Correcher, A., & Morant, F. (2019). Integration of marine wave energy converters into seaports: A case study in the port of Valencia. Energies, 12(5), 787. - doi:10.3390/en12050787
Schallenberg-Rodríguez, Julieta, et al. Energy supply of a large size desalination plant using wave energy. Practical case: North of Gran Canaria. Applied Energy, 2020, vol. 278, p. 115681. - doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115681
Contestabile, P., & Vicinanza, D. (2018). Coastal defence integrating wave-energy-based desalination: A case study in Madagascar. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 6(2), 64. - doi:10.3390/jmse6020064
Plataforma Oceánica de Canarias (PLOCAN). URL: (accessed 22 February 2023).
Citation note:
Marichal Plasencia G.N., Ávila Prats D., Conesa Rosique A., Rodríguez Hernández J.Á., Iglesias G.: The Future of Energy in Ships and Harbors. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 18, No. 1, doi:10.12716/1001.18.01.03, pp. 45-53, 2024
Authors in other databases:
Graciliano Nicolás Marichal Plasencia: ORCID iD Scopus icon6602751574
Ángel Conesa Rosique:
José Ángel Rodríguez Hernández: Scopus icon57210817254

Other publications of authors:

I. Padrón Armas, D. Ávila Prats, E. Melón Rodríguez, I. Franquis Vera, J.Á. Rodríguez Hernández
G.N. Marichal Plasencia, D. Ávila, A. Hernández, I. Padrón Armas
C. Barrera, I. Padrón Armas, F. Luis, O. Llinas, G.N. Marichal Plasencia

File downloaded 180 times

Important: cookie usage
The website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony