Journal is indexed in following databases:

2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
Shipping Related Activities and Their Environmental Impact – Lessons Learnt from the Estonian Case Study
1 Estonian Maritime Academy of Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia
2 Lappeenranta-Lahti University of Technology LUT, Kouvola, Finland
ABSTRACT: Baltic Sea maritime transport makes up about 15% of all cargo globally transported via sea, which makes it one of the busiest maritime areas all over the world [1]. At the same time shipping operations create environmental pressures to the air, discharges of oil, sewage from passenger ships as well as invasion of alien organisms from ships’ ballast water or hulls [2]. In order to move from assessment of discharges from one ship to a certain area, it is necessary to combine the discharge factors to the activity patterns [3]. In this study the shipping activities that have environmental impact in the Estonian sea area will be analysed. In addition, the activities will be related with their source of pollution (e.g., manoeuvring, anchoring, loading/unloading cargo) and the impact or consequences are analysed (e.g., emission to air (CO2, SOx, NOx) discharge to water (antifouling paints, scrubber water, ballast water, bilge water, black water), physical discharge (underwater noise) etc). Finally, we assess the relative importance of the environmental effect of shipping in Estonian waters.
HELCOM, ‘Overview of the Shipping Traffic in the Baltic Sea’. Apr. 2009. Accessed: Jan. 14, 2023. [Online]. Available:
HELCOM, ‘Shipping’. 2022. Accessed: Sep. 19, 2022. [Online]. Available:
J.-P. Jalkanen et al., ‘Modeling of discharges from Baltic Sea shipping’, Surface/Numerical Models/Baltic Sea/Transports/cycling (nutrients, C, O, etc.)/Oceanic pollution, preprint, Oct. 2020. doi: 10.5194/os-2020-99. - doi:10.5194/os-2020-99
A. K. Jägerbrand, A. Brutemark, J. Barthel Svedén, and I.-M. Gren, ‘A review on the environmental impacts of shipping on aquatic and nearshore ecosystems’, Sci. Total Environ., vol. 695, p. 133637, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133637. - doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133637
Navigating stormy waters. in Review of maritime transport / United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva, no. 2022. Geneva: United Nations, 2022.
European Commission, ‘The EU Blue Economy Report 2022’. Publications Office of the European Union, 2022. [Online]. Available: doi:10.2771/793264
K. Piirimäe, K. Pihor, H. Rozeik, and M. Piirits, ‘Mereala planeeringu alusuuring: merekeskkonna ressursside kasutamisest saadava majandusliku kasu mudel’. Praxis, 2017.
European Environment Agency. and European Maritime Safety Agency., European Maritime Transport Environmental Report 2021. LU: Publications Office, 2021. Accessed: Sep. 06, 2022. [Online]. Available:
IMO, ‘Fourth IMO GHG Study 2020’, 2021.
European Maritime Safety Agency, ‘European Maritime Safety Report 2022’, Lisbon, Portugal, 2022. [Online]. Available: doi 10.2808/914730, TN-AA-22-001-EN-N
E. Furman, M. Pihlajamäki, P. Välipakka, and K. Myrberg, Eds., ‘The Baltic Sea Environment and Ecology’. Finnish Environment Institute, 2014. [Online]. Available: file:///C:/Users/admin/Documents/TransNav/Allikad/5.%20The-Baltic-Sea-Environment-and-Ecology.pdf
U. Tapaninen, Maritime Transport : Shipping Logistics and Operations. London ; New York: Kogan Page Limited, 2020.
UNCTAD, Review of Maritime Transport 2021. in Review of maritime transport / United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, no. 2021. United States of America: United Nations, 2021.
I. Maljutenko et al., ‘Modelling spatial dispersion of contaminants from shipping lanes in the Baltic Sea’, Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol. 173, p. 112985, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112985. - doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112985
L. Johansson et al., ‘Model for leisure boat activities and emissions – implementation for the Baltic Sea’, Ocean Sci., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1143–1163, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.5194/os-16-1143-2020. - doi:10.5194/os-16-1143-2020
U. Raudsepp et al., ‘Metoodika koostamine laevandusega seotud keskkonnamõju hindamiseks ja kirjeldamiseks Eesti merealal ning esialgse hinnangu koostamine’. Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, Tartu Ülikool, 2022.
EMDE, ‘EMDE statistics’. 2022.
International Maritime Organisation, ‘International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments’. IMO, Feb. 13, 2004. [Online]. Available:
K. Künnis-Beres and V. Kisand, ‘Laevade ballastvee mikroorganismide ja viiruste uuring’. 2020. [Online]. Available:
J.-P. Jalkanen, L. Johansson, and E. Majamäki, ‘Discharges to the sea from Baltic Sea shipping in 2006-2020’, Finland, Oct. 2021. - doi:10.5194/os-2020-99
H. Ojaveer et al., ‘Dynamics of biological invasions and pathways over time: a case study of a temperate coastal sea.’, Biol Invasions, no. 19, pp. 799–813, 2017, doi: - doi:10.1007/s10530-016-1316-x
Coalition Clean Baltic, ‘Potential Sources of Nutrient Inputs: Baltic Sea Ports Handling Fertilizers. Draft’. May 30, 2017. Accessed: Feb. 17, 2022. [Online]. Available:
T. A. Byrnes and R. J. K. Dunn, ‘Boating- and Shipping-Related Environmental Impacts and Example Management Measures: A Review’, J. Mar. Sci. Eng., vol. 8, no. 11, p. 908, 2020, doi: - doi:10.3390/jmse8110908
T. Nellesen, K. Broeg, E. Dorgeloh, M. Joswig, and S. Heitmüller, ‘A Technical Guidance for the Handling of Wastewater in Ports of the Baltic Sea Special Area under MARPOL Annex IV’. Helsinki Commission – HELCOM, 2019. Accessed: Sep. 13, 2022. [Online]. Available:
A. Wankhede, ‘General Overview of Central Cooling System on Ships’. Marine Insight, Jul. 05, 2019. Accessed: Mar. 31, 2022. [Online]. Available:
United States Environmental Protection Agency, ‘Seawater Cooling Overboard Discharge: Nature of Discharge’. Apr. 1999. Accessed: Mar. 31, 2022. [Online]. Available:
K. Chopra, ‘What are Anti Fouling Paints and TBT’. Marine Insight, May 30, 2021. Accessed: Mar. 01, 2023. [Online]. Available:
U. Raudsepp et al., ‘Shipborne nutrient dynamics and impact on the eutrophication in the Baltic Sea’, Sci. Total Environ., vol. 671, pp. 189–207, Jun. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.264. - doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.264
P. Andrew, ‘The EU F-gas Regulation and what it means for the maritime industry’. West of England P&I Club, Aug. 08, 2020. Accessed: Mar. 30, 2022. [Online]. Available:
K. Kasak, M. Pindus, and K. Piirimäe, ‘Veetranspordi reostusjuhtumite analüüs ja reostustõrje võimekuse hindamine aastatel 2012-2021’. Keskkonnaministeerium, 2022.
Transpordiamet, ‘Eelmisel aastal leiti Eesti merepõhjast 6 uut laevavrakki’. Feb. 18, 2021. Accessed: Mar. 30, 2022. [Online]. Available:
A. Klauson and J. Laanearu, ‘EL merestrateegia raamdirektiivi (2008/56/EÜ) kohane merekeskkonna seisundi hinnang teemal pidev veealune müra (D11)’. Keskkonnainvesteeringute Keskus, 2018. Accessed: Feb. 27, 2022. [Online]. Available: file:///C:/Users/admin/Documents/TransNav/Allikad/20.%20Aruanne%20veealune%20m%C3%BCra.pdf
V. Lauri, ‘Eesti merealal olevad ohtlikumad laevavrakid saavad ohuhinnangu’, ERR, Jan. 26, 2022. Accessed: Feb. 27, 2022. [Online]. Available:
European Environment Agency, ‘European Maritime Activities and Potential Environmental Issues’. 2020. Accessed: Mar. 10, 2022. [Online]. Available:
R. Portsmuth, T. Hunt, E. Terk, K. Nõmmela, and A. Hartikainen, ‘Estonian Maritime Cluster’. Eesti Mereakadeemia, 2011.
Citation note:
Tombak M.L., Tapaninen U., Palu R.: Shipping Related Activities and Their Environmental Impact – Lessons Learnt from the Estonian Case Study. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 17, No. 4, doi:10.12716/1001.17.04.24, pp. 973-980, 2023
Authors in other databases:
Mari-Liis Tombak:

Other publications of authors:

File downloaded 159 times

Important: cookie usage
The website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony