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ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

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TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
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Restabilising Afghanistan through a Comprehensive Logistics Framework for the Access to Ports
1 Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
2 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Tokyo, Japan
ABSTRACT: This paper aims to examine numerous sustaining factors in the restabilisation of Afghanistan, from legal, logistical and technical perspectives. The significance of logistics and infrastructure for state reconstruction and stability has been recognised by military and engineering practices. However, previous research on Afghanistan has focused on specific areas such as geopolitics, regional studies, bilateral cooperation and international aid. In contrast, this paper examines specialised issues within logistics and infrastructure, i.e., transit rights, access to ports, investors’ codes of conduct and the modus operandi of military and engineering engaged in the construction, operation and protection of infrastructure, which have not yet been fully discussed in the previous research. Furthermore, the importance of logistics of multiple shipping routes will be examined through comparative analysis. Considering a prolonged restabilisation process in land-locked Afghanistan, rights of transit and port access are imperative to achieve safe logistics in energy, water, food and medical supplies. In conclusion, an integrated, comprehensive model agreement for multilateral cooperation would enable international aid to be funnelled via a single scheme. Thus, this paper concludes that the long-term stability and development of Afghanistan will be guaranteed through a comprehensive framework agreement for logistics, which materialises rights of transit and port access.
Article 125, paragraph 1 (a) provides a definition of a land-locked state as ‘a State which has no sea-coast’. Robin Churchill and Vaughan Lowe: “The Law of the Sea, 3rd ed.”, p. 433, Manchester University Press. (1999); Kishor Uprety: “The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (The World Bank): Law, Justice, and Development Series, The Transit Regime for Land-locked States”, p. 4. (2006).
World Bank, Bartlomiej Kaminski and Saumya Mitra: “Borderless Bazaars and Regional Integration in Central Asia, Emerging Patterns of Trade and Cross-Border Cooperation”, p. 45. (2012) 016850647/pdf/693110PUB0publ067926B09780821394 717.pdf (2022.6) According to Logistics Capacity Assessment (2.5 Afghanistan Waterways Assessment), barges for bulk cargo in use at Hairatan Port come in a total 1,200-metric-ton capacity. hanistan+Waterways+Assessment (2022.6)
NATO: Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan (2015-2021) tedLocale=en (2022.6)
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Bojan Savić: “Afghanistan Under Siege, the Afghan Body and the Postcolonia Border”, pp. 80 and 200, I. B. Tauris. (2020). Savić describes the ‘security-development nexus’ and ‘security and development metrics’. - doi:10.5040/9781788317955
UN Security Council: S/RES/1383 (2001) (2022.6)
UN Security Council: S/RES/1386 (2001) (2022.6)
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Theo Farrell and Stuart Gordon: “COIN Machine”, Royal United Services Institute Journal, p. 19 (2009. 6). For another example the US provincial reconstruction team, Carter Malkasian: “The American War in Afghanistan”, p. 190, Oxford University Press. (2021).
Lester W. Grau: “The Bear Went Over the Mountain: Soviet Combat Tactics in Afghanistan”, pp. 135-150, National Defense University Press. (1996). See Chapter 5: March and Convoy Escort.
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Barnett R. Rubin: “The Search for Peace in Afghanistan, from Buffer State to Failed State”, p. 47, Yale University Press. (1995).
Savić: supra note 7.
Barnett R. Rubin: “The Fragmentation of Afghanistan, State Formation and Collapse in the International System, 2nd ed.”, p. 264, Yale University Press. Cf. Savić: supra note 7, pp. 89-111 scrutinises Heratis’ ambivalent resistances in their hearts and minds.
Afghanistan Railway Authority: Afghanistan Railways Ports and Stations (2022.6)
Ibid.: Completed Projects (2022.6)
Ibid.: Proposed Projects (2022.6)
Title 22 - Foreign Relations and Intercourse, US Code Chapter 95 - Iran Freedom and Counterproliferation, Section 8801 et seq. 22/chapter95&edition=prelim (2022.6) US Congressional Research Service: “Iran Sanctions”, p. 47, February 2, 2022 (2022.6) Council of the EU: Full Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action and Other Relevant Documents (2022.6)
Ministry of Roads and Urban Development, Ports and Maritime Organization of Iran: Iranian Ports (2022.6)
Harsh V. Pant and Mehta Ketan: “India in Chabahar: A Regional Imperative”, Asian Survey, Vol. 58, No. 4, p. 672 (2018). - doi:10.1525/as.2018.58.4.660
Bilateral Contract on Chabahar Port for Port Development and Operations between India Ports Global Private Limited and Arya Banader of Iran.
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A prime example of Russia’s protection of its maritime interests is the Northern Sea Route, which is frequently used for energy transport, and where Russia has monopolised the pilotage by nuclear powered ice-breakers. Furthermore the Black Sea is a strategic location for Russia, as it connects the country to the Mediterranean Sea via the Dardanelles-Bosporus Straits in accordance with Convention regarding the Régime of Straits (Montreux Convention) in 1936. me%20173/v173.pdf (2022.6) From the Caspian Sea, military vessels of non-coastal states are excluded by the Convention on the legal status of the Caspian amongst five coastal states (Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Azerbaijan) in 2018.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian: Foreign Minister Lavrov's interview to the Islamic Republic News Agency (Iran), April 12, 2021. Minister Lavrov answered that “sustainable increase in trade and economic cooperation largely depends on the developed logistics network. INSTC is a good example of multilateral collaboration. It is the key infrastructure project in the region designed to promote mutually beneficial interaction between multiple states.” (2022.6)
Islamic Republic News Agency: North-South Corridor Good Alternative to Suez Canal ood-alternative-to-Suez-Canal-Iran-envoy (2022.6) About INSTC, see also Valdai Discussion Club: “International North–South Transport Corridor and Transregional Integration Scenarios”, p. 21 (2019) (2022.6)
Agreement between the Governments of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement, 2010, p. 8. APTTA.pdf (2022.6)
WFP: Afghanistan Emergency (2022.6)
A prime example of dispute in terms of the transit of energy is a case between Russia and Ukraine. Ukraine requested consultations with Russia regarding alleged multiple restrictions on traffic in transit from Ukraine through Russia to Kazakhstan or Kyrgyzstan in 2016. Ukraine claimed that the measures appeared to be inconsistent with GATT. Russia’s rebuttal is that this case is an exception to Article 5 of GATT due to the essential security interests outlined in Article 21 (b). World Trade Organisation: Russia-Measures Concerning Traffic in Transit - Panel Report - Action by the Dispute Settlement Body, WT/DS512/7, 29 April 2019 512_e.htm (2022.6)
US Office of the Historian: Foreign Relations of the United States, 1948, the Near East, South Asia, and Africa, Volume V, Part 1, Discussion with Afghanistan concerning Afghan requests for financial assistance and provision of military equipment p1/ch10subch1 (2022.6)
US House of Representatives: US Interests in the Central Asian Republics, Hearing before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific of the Committee on International Relations, 105th Congress, February 12, 1998, p. 30 000/hfa48119_0f.htm (2022.6)
Asian Development Bank: TAPI Gas Pipeline Project (Phase 1), Project Data Sheet (2022.6) See also Japan International Cooperation Agency: Corridor Development Approach 0vm0000avs7w2-att/japan_brand_07.pdf (2022.6)
Izutsu Toshihiko: “Ethico-Religious Concepts in the Qur’ān”, pp. 7-8, McGill-Queen’s University Press. (2002).
Mathias Herdegen: “Principles of International Economic Law, 2nd ed.”, p. 439, Oxford University Press. (2016). - doi:10.1093/law/9780198790563.001.0001
Savić: supra note 7, p. 10.
NATO: ISAF defends World Food Programme convoy from attack, kills two insurgents ober/pr081011-523.html (2022.6)
Craig Whitlock: “The Afghanistan Papers, A Secret History of the War”, p. 160, Simon and Schuster. (2021): Malkasian: supra note 11; Christine Chinkin and Mary Kaldor: “International Law and New Wars”, p. 494, Cambridge University Press. (2017). Especially, difficulties over the construction and operation of Kajaki Dam for providing hydroelectricity to Helmand and Kandahar provinces since 1953 as a part of the Helmand Valley Irrigation Scheme are long-lasting issues. Lee, supra note 24, p. 545.
Daniel Twining: “The Stakes in Afghanistan Go Well beyond Afghanistan”, Foreign Policy (2009. 9).
Kenji Nagata: “Water Resources and Irrigation Policy in Afghanistan: Ownership of Local Societies as a Key to Reconstruction”, International Journal of Social Science Studies, Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 33 (2016. 4). - doi:10.11114/ijsss.v4i4.1359
Agreement among the Azerbaijan Republic, Georgia and the Republic of Turkey relating to the Transportation of Petroleum via the Territories of the Azerbaijan Republic, Georgia and the Republic of Turkey through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Main Export Pipeline.
Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction: “SIGAR 17-11 Audit Report”, p. 18 (2016) (2022.6)
Citation note:
Okochi M., Nawabi F., Hemmi S., Takemoto T.: Restabilising Afghanistan through a Comprehensive Logistics Framework for the Access to Ports. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 16, No. 3, doi:10.12716/1001.16.03.03, pp. 429-438, 2022
Authors in other databases:
Mika Okochi:
Fahim Nawabi:
Shin Hemmi:
Takahiro Takemoto: ORCID iD

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