Journal is indexed in following databases:

2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
Remote-Controlled Tug Operation via VR/AR: Results of an In-Situ Model Test
Times cited (SCOPUS): 2
ABSTRACT: The German-funded FernSAMS project aimed at the development of an unmanned, remote-controlled tug operation with AR/VR technology. After an extensive simulation test with ship-handling simulators, the developed FernSAMS AR/VR system has now been in-situ tested with a scale model of the tug. The model test results showed very robust stability in remote operations with improved situational awareness with the VR/AR system and sensors. After a short introduction of the FernSAMS concept as well as some first insights into FernSAMS Human-Machine-Interface tests within the simulator, this paper introduces the technical setup of the scale-model tests being conducted with the FernSAMS concept to test the operational and technical feasibility of AR/VR-based remote control. This includes an overview of the systems and sensors integration and an analysis of the effectiveness of AR/VR system combined with 360-degree video streaming.
Börner, K.M., Fuhrmann, A., Bösinger, M.A.: Performance of Augmented Reality Remote Rendering via Mobile Network. In: Weyers, B., Lürig, C., and Zielasko, D. (eds.) GI VR / AR Workshop. Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (2020). - doi:10.18420/vrar2020_14
Burmeister, H.C., Grundmann, R., Schulte, B.: Situational Awareness in AR/VR during remote maneuvering with MASS: The tug case. In: Global Oceans 2020: Singapore – U.S. Gulf Coast. pp. 1–6 (2020). - doi:10.1109/IEEECONF38699.2020.9389455
DNVGL: Class guidance:Autonomous and remotely operated ships. (2018).
Dybvik, H., Veitch, E., Steinert, M.: Exploring Challenges with Designing and Developing Shore Control Centers (SCC) for Autonomous Ships. Proceedings of the Design Society: DESIGN Conference. 1, 847–856 (2020). - doi:10.1017/dsd.2020.131
Endsley, M.R.: Toward a Theory of Situation Awareness in Dynamic Systems. Hum Factors. 37, 1, 32–64 (1995). - doi:10.1518/001872095779049543
Grech, M.R., Horberry, T., Smith, A.: Human Error in Maritime Operations: Analyses of Accident Reports Using the Leximancer Tool. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 46, 19, 1718–1721 (2002). - doi:10.1177/154193120204601906
International Maritime Organisation: MSC 99 Report on the Maritime Safety Committee on its ninety-ninth session. , London, UK (2018).
KOTUG: KOTUG demonstrates remote controlled tugboat sailing over a long distance. (2018).
Mazuryk, T., Gervautz, M.: Virtual Reality - History, Applications, Technology and Future. (1999).
NYK: NYK completes remote tugboat navigation tests. (2020).
Rolls-Royce: Rolls-Royce demonstrates world’s first remotely operated commercial vessel. (2017).
Samsung Heavy Industries: Demonstration of Autonomous and Remote-Controlled Ship Operations. (2020).
Shi, S., Hsu, C.-H.: A Survey of Interactive Remote Rendering Systems. ACM Compututing Surveys. 47, 4, (2015). - doi:10.1145/2719921
Steinkrauss, U.: Overview: OPC United Architecture, caloverview_e.pdf, last accessed 2021/02/01.
Walther, L., Hartmann, A., Burmeister, H.C., Jahn, C.: Mariners in the Context of Remote-controlled Tugs. European Journal of Navigation. 19, 1, 4–10 (2019).
Wärtsilä: Wärtsilä successfully tests remote control ship operating capability. (2017).
Citation note:
Byeon S., Grundmann R., Burmeister H.C.: Remote-Controlled Tug Operation via VR/AR: Results of an In-Situ Model Test. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 15, No. 4, doi:10.12716/1001.15.04.12, pp. 801-806, 2021
Authors in other databases:
Seongsu Byeon:
Robert Grundmann: Scopus icon57220783056
Hans-Christoph Burmeister:

Other publications of authors:

File downloaded 230 times

Important: cookie usage
The website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony