ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
www http://www.transnav.eu
e-mail transnav@umg.edu.pl
Protected AIS: A Demonstration of Capability Scheme to Provide Authentication and Message Integrity
ABSTRACT: The Automatic Identification System (AIS) provides situational awareness for vessels at sea. AIS has a number of known security vulnerabilities that can lead to a several types of attacks on AIS, including the ability to create ghost vessels, false warning or meteorological messages, or bogus virtual aids-to-navigation (AtoN). A number of methods, with varying levels of complexity, have been proposed to better secure AIS and, indeed, emerging AIS protocols will implement some of these mechanisms. Nevertheless, little has been done to secure the current standards, which will remain in use for some time. This paper presents Protected AIS (pAIS), a demonstration of capability implementation using public-key cryptography methods to address several AIS security vulnerabilities, maintain backward compatibility, and be able to interoperate with non-pAIS devices.
Balduzzi, M., Pasta, A., & Wilhoit, K. (2014). A security evaluation of AIS automated identification system. In Proceeding the 30th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC '14), pp. 436-445. New Orleans, Louisiana, December 8-12, 2014. - doi:10.1145/2664243.2664257
Balduzzi, M., Wilhoit, K., & Pasta, A. (2014, December). A Security Evaluation of AIS. Trend Micro Research Paper. Retrieved from https://www.trendmicro.com/ cloud-content/us/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp-a-security-evaluation-of-ais.pdf
Cutlip, K. (2017, March 31). AIS for Safety and Tracking: A Brief History. Global Fishing Watch Web site. Retrieved from https://globalfishingwatch.org/data/ais-for-safety-and-tracking-a-brief-history/
Ferguson, N., Schneier, B., & Kohno, T. (2010). Cryptography Engineering: Design Principles and Practical Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Goudossis, A., & Katsikas, S.K. (2019, June). Towards a secure automatic identification system (AIS). Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 24(2), 410-423. - doi:10.1007/s00773-018-0561-3
Goudossis, A., Kostis, T., & Nikitakos, N. (2012). Automatic identification system stated requirements for naval transponder security assurance. In A. Goudossis, T. Kostis, & N. Nikitakos (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Applications of Mathematics and Informatics in Military Sciences (AMIMS), Vari, Greece.
Hall, J., Lee, J., Benin, J., Armstrong, C., & Owen, H. (2015). IEEE 1609 Influenced Automatic Identification System (AIS). In Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 81st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Glasgow, May 11-14, 2015, pp. 1-5. - doi:10.1109 /VTCSpring.2015.7145867
International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). (2016, June). An Overview of AIS (Edition 2). IALA Guideline 1082. Retrieved from https://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pdf/ IALA_Guideline_1082_An_Overview_of_AIS.pdf
International Maritime Organization (IMO). (2002, July 1). International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), Chapter V (Safety of Navigation), Regulation 19 (Carriage requirements for shipborne navigational systems and equipment). Retrieved from https://mcanet.mcga.gov.uk /public/c4/solas/index.html
International Telecommunication Union (ITU). (2014, February). Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile frequency band. ITU-R Recommendation M.1371-5. M Series: Mobile, radiodetermination, amateur and related satellite services. Retrieved from https://www.itu.int/ dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/m/R-REC-M.1371-5-201402-I!!PDF-E.pdf
International Telecommunication Union (ITU). (2015, March). Assignment and use of identities in the maritime mobile service. ITU-R Recommendation M.585-7. M Series: Mobile, radiodetermination, amateur and related satellite services. Retrieved from https://www.itu.int/dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/m/R-REC-M.585-7-201503-I!!PDF-E.pdf
Kessler, G.C. (2019, October 14). AIS Research Using a Raspberry Pi. Retrieved from https://www.garykessler.net/library/ais_pi.html
National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA). (2019). NMEA 0183 Interface Standard. Retrieved from https://www.nmea.org/content/STANDARDS/NMEA_0183_Standard
National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA). (2019). NMEA 2000® Interface Standard. Retrieved from https://www.nmea.org/content/STANDARDS/ NMEA_2000
National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA). (2019). OneNet Standard for IP Networking of Marine Electronic Devices. Retrieved from https://www.nmea.org/content/STANDARDS/OneNet
Oh, S.H., Seo, D., & Lee, B. (2015). S3 (secure ship-to-ship) information sharing scheme using ship authentication in the e-navigation. International Journal of Security and its Applications, 9(2),97–110. - doi:10.14257/ijsia.2015.9.2.10
Trend Micro Warns Of Vulnerabilities In Global Vessel Tracking Systems. (2017, February 3). Firstpost Web site. Retrieved from https://www.firstpost.com/business/ biztech/business-tech/security/trend-micro-warns-of-vulnerabilities-in-global-vessel-tracking-systems-1895547.html
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). (2014, June 4). Encrypted Automatic Identification System (EAIS) Interface Design Description (IDD). Command, Control, and Communications Engineering Center (C3Cen).Retrieved from https://epic.org/foia/dhs/uscg/nais/EPIC-15-05-29-USCG-FOIA-20151030-Production-2.pdf
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). (2019, August 14). AIS Requirements. USCG Navigation Center Web site. Retrieved from https://www.navcen.uscg.gov/? pageName= AISRequirementsRev
Citation note:
Kessler G.C.: Protected AIS: A Demonstration of Capability Scheme to Provide Authentication and Message Integrity. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 14, No. 2, doi:10.12716/1001.14.02.02, pp. 279-286, 2020
Authors in other databases:
Gary C. Kessler: Scopus icon23976166100 Scholar iconnj-uIMUAAAAJ

Other publications of authors:

File downloaded 577 times

Important: TransNav.eu cookie usage
The TransNav.eu website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the TransNav.eu website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony