Journal is indexed in following databases:

2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
Polish DGPS System: 1995-2018 – Studies of Reference Station Operating Zones
1 Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
ABSTRACT: The operating zone of a radio navigation system is one of its main operating features. It determines the size of a water body in which the system can be used, while guaranteeing vessels’ navigation safety. The DGPS system in the LF/MF range is now the basic positioning system in coastal waters around the world, which guarantees not only metre positioning accuracy, but it is also the only one to provide navigators with signals on positioning reliability. This paper describes and summarises over twenty years of studies dealing with the operating zone of the Polish DGPS reference station network. This paper is the fifth in a series of publications whose aim was to present in detail the process of installation, testing and long-term evaluation of the navigational parameters of the Polish DGPS system, launched in 1995. This paper includes the theoretical foundations of determination of the Dziwnów and Rozewie DGPS reference station operating zones in the years 1995-2018. Moreover, it presents the measurement results for the signal levels and the results of their analyses, which determine the station operating zones.
Baptista, P., Bastos, L., Bernardes, C., Cunha, T., Dias, J. (2008). Monitoring Sandy Shores Morphologies by DGPS – A Practical Tool to Generate Digital Elevation Models, Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 24(6), pp. 1516-1528. - doi:10.2112/07-0861.1
Czaplewski, K. (2018). Does Poland Need eLoran?, Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Transport System Telematics (Kraków, Poland), pp. 525-544. - doi:10.1007/978-3-319-97955-7_35
Dziewicki, M., Specht, C. (2009). Position Accuracy Evaluation of the Modernized Polish DGPS, Polish Maritime Research, Vol. 16(4), pp. 57-61. - doi:10.2478/v10012-008-0057-x
Enge, P., Levin, P., Hansen, A., Kalafus, R. (1992-1993). Coverage of DGPS/Radiobeacons, NAVIGATION, the Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Vol. 39(4), pp. 363-380. - doi:10.1002/j.2161-4296.1992.tb02283.x
Huuhka, E., Lehtoranta, V. (1995). Study of Night-Time Coverage of DGPS Radiobeacons in Finland, Document prepared for Finnish Maritime Administration, Tuusula.
IALA (1996). IALA RNAV 5/3.5/2, GNSS and DGNSS Submission from USCG.
IHO (2008). IHO Standards for Hydrographic Surveys, Special Publication No. 44, 5th Edition.
Jang, W.S., Park, H.S., Park, S.G. (2018). Analysis of Positioning Accuracy of PPP, VRS, DGPS in Coast and Inland Water Area of South Korea, In: Shim, J.-S., Chum, I., Lim, H.S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 15th International Coastal Symposium (Busan, Republic of Korea), Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 85, pp. 1276-1280. - doi:10.2112/SI85-256.1
Kelner, J.M., Ziółkowski, C., Nowosielski, L., Wnuk, M. (2016). Reserve Navigation System for Ships Based on Coastal Radio Beacons, Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (Savannah, USA), pp. 393-402. - doi:10.1109/PLANS.2016.7479726
Sadowski, J., Stefański, J. (2017). Asynchronous Phase-Location System, Journal of Marine Engineering & Technology, Vol. 16(4), pp. 400-408. - doi:10.1080/20464177.2017.1376372
Specht, C. (1997). Multicriterial Analyses of DGPS in Context of Radionavigation Service on the South Baltic, Doctoral Thesis, Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia (in Polish).
Specht, C. (2011). Accuracy and Coverage of the Modernized Polish Maritime Differential GPS System, Advances in Space Research, Vol. 47(2), pp. 221-228. - doi:10.1016/j.asr.2010.05.021
Specht, C., Dąbrowski, P. (2017). Runaway PRN11 GPS Satellite, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference „Environmental Engineering“ (Vilnius, Lithuania), pp. 1-6. - doi:10.3846/enviro.2017.244
Specht, C., Dąbrowski, P., Pawelski, J., Specht, M., Szot, T. (2019a). Comparative Analysis of Positioning Accuracy of GNSS Receivers of Samsung Galaxy Smartphones in Marine Dynamic Measurements, Advances in Space Research, Vol. 63(9), pp. 3018-3028. - doi:10.1016/j.asr.2018.05.019
Specht, C., Mania, M., Skóra, M., Specht, M. (2015). Accuracy of the GPS Positioning System in the Context of Increasing the Number of Satellites in the Constellation, Polish Maritime Research, Vol. 22(2), pp. 9-14. - doi:10.1515/pomr-2015-0012
Specht, C., Pawelski, J., Smolarek, L., Specht, M., Dąbrowski, P. (2019b). Assessment of the Positioning Accuracy of DGPS and EGNOS Systems in the Bay of Gdansk Using Maritime Dynamic Measurements, The Journal of Navigation, Vol. 72(3), pp. 575-587. - doi:10.1017/S0373463318000838
Specht, C., Weintrit, A., Specht, M. (2016). A History of Maritime Radio-Navigation Positioning Systems Used in Poland, The Journal of Navigation, Vol. 69(3), pp. 468-480. - doi:10.1017/S0373463315000879
Stateczny, A., Kazimierski, W., Burdziakowski, P., Motyl, W., Wisniewska, M. (2019). Shore Construction Detection by Automotive Radar for the Needs of Autonomous Surface Vehicle Navigation, International Journal of Geo-Information, Vol. 8(2), pp. 1-19. - doi:10.3390/ijgi8020080
Stateczny, A., Włodarczyk-Sielicka, M., Grońska, D., Motyl, W. (2018). Multibeam Echosounder and LiDAR in Process of 360-Degree Numerical Map Production for Restricted Waters with HydroDron, Proceedings of the 2018 Baltic Geodetic Congress (Gdańsk, Poland), pp. 288-292. - doi:10.1109/BGC-Geomatics.2018.00061
Urbański, J., Morgaś, W., Specht, C. (2008). Perfecting the Maritime Navigation Information Services of the European Union, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Information Technology (Gdańsk, Poland), pp. 1-4. - doi:10.1109/INFTECH.2008.4621631
Xinchun, Z., Ximin, C., Dongkun, Y. (2016). Application of Modified Kalman Filtering Restraining Outliers Based on Orthogonality of Innovation to Track Tester, Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (Harbin, China), pp. 171-175. - doi:10.1109/ICMA.2016.7558555
Yang, C., Mohammadi, A., Chen, Q.W. (2016). Multi-Sensor Fusion with Interaction Multiple Model and Chi-Square Test Tolerant Filter, Sensors, Vol. 16(11), pp. 1835. - doi:10.3390/s16111835
Citation note:
Specht C., Specht M., Dąbrowski P.: Polish DGPS System: 1995-2018 – Studies of Reference Station Operating Zones. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 13, No. 3, doi:10.12716/1001.13.03.13, pp. 581-586, 2019
Authors in other databases:
Paweł Dąbrowski:

Other publications of authors:

A. Weintrit, R. Wawruch, C. Specht, L. Gucma, Z. Pietrzykowski
K. Czaplewski, C. Specht, P. Dąbrowski, M. Specht, Z. Wiśniewski, W. Koc, A. Wilk, K. Karwowski, P. Chrostowski, J. Szmagliński
A. Halicki, M. Specht, A. Stateczny, C. Specht, O. Lewicka

File downloaded 481 times

Important: cookie usage
The website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony