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2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
International Safety Management - Safety Management Systems and the Challenges of Changing a Culture
1 SUNY Maritime College, New York, United States
ABSTRACT: Over the past generation, the ISM code has brought forth tremendous opportunities to investigate and enhance the human factor in shipping through the implementation of Safety Management Systems. One of the critical factors to this implementation has been mandatory compliance and a requirement for obtaining a Document of Compliance (DOC) for vessels operating globally or at least internationally. A primary objective of these systems is to maintain them as ?living? or ?dynamic? systems that are always evolving. As the ISM code has evolved, there have been instances where large organizations have opted to maintain a voluntary DOC from their respective class society. This has been accomplished with a large human factor element as typically an organizational culture does not always accept change readily especially if there is not a legal requirement to do so. In other words, when considering maritime training is it possible that organizations may represent cultural challenges? The intent of this paper will be to research large maritime operations that have opted for a document of compliance voluntarily and compare them to similar organizations that have been mandated by international law to do the same. The result should be to gain insight into the human factors that must contribute to a culture change in the organization for the purposes of a legal requirement versus the human factors that contribute to a voluntary establishment of a safety management system. This analysis will include both the executive decision making that designs a system implementation and the operational sector that must execute its implementation. All success and failures of education and training can be determined by the outcome. Did the training achieve its goal? Or has the education prepared the students to embrace a new idea in conjunction with a company goal or a new regulatory scheme? In qualifying the goal of a successful ISM integration by examining both mandatory and voluntary ISM implementation in large maritime operations, specifically ferry systems, hopefully we can learn from the various factors that have gone into each.
Transportation Safety Board of Canada (2008) Marine Investigation Report - Ferry Queen of the North Striking and Sinking Gil Island, British Columbia – M06W0052
National Transportation Safety Board United States (2003) Marine Accident Report Ferry Andrew J. Barberi – NTSB/MAR-05/01 (PB2005-916401)
Ministry of Infrastructures and Transports, Marine Casualties Investigative Body Cruise Ship COSTA CONCORDIA Marine casualty on January 13, 2012 Report on the safety technical investigation
Marine Accident Investigation Branch U.K. (1987) Herald of Free Enterprise Report of Court of Inquiry – Report No. 8074 (p. 14)
Bhattacharya, Capt. S – (2009) – Impact of ISM Code on Management of Occupational Health and Safety in the Maritime Industry – School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University – (pp. 162-165)
Dewey, J (1894) – The Ego as Cause – (pp. 337-341)
Citation note:
Hanchrow G.: International Safety Management - Safety Management Systems and the Challenges of Changing a Culture. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 11, No. 1, doi:10.12716/1001.11.01.15, pp. 125-131, 2017

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