Journal is indexed in following databases:

2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
Distributed Situation Awareness in a Demanding Maritime Operation: A Case Study of the Subsea Segment
1 University of South-Eastern Norway, Borre, Norway
ABSTRACT: Maritime subsea operations have increased significantly in size and complexity during the last decades as a result of the advances in the offshore oil industry. Despite the fact that subsea operations can involve hundreds of personnel, working together with complex technology, limited research can be found regarding the operations in the available literature. This study aims to analyze a routine subsea operation using the Distributed Situation Awareness (DSA) framework and understand how the operators on board maintain their DSA in routine operations through a case study. In order to understand how the operation unfold in complex sociotechnical systems and how situational awareness (SA) is distributed across agents and artefacts, the theoretical framework of DSA can be useful as the focus is on the interactions at a systemic level. To achieve the research objectives, a combination of qualitative methods was utilized to illustrate DSA on board a subsea vessel. Initially an observation was conducted during a live subsea survey operation to capture the interaction between personnel and instruments. Furthermore, all observed personnel were subjected to retrospective interviews to elicit further knowledge of the operation. Finally, the data was analyzed according to the propositional network approach and Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). The result of this study portrays the SA of a subsea survey operation as propositional networks for the main phases identified in the HTA. The main findings of the study show a significantly difference in DSA among the Bridge personnel and personnel located in the Online Control Room (ONCR). Furthermore, it was found that the dynamic of the system allowed personnel to have different level of DSA without jeopardizing the overall operation. Finally, the summary of the findings provides a basic understanding of how a routine subsea survey operation unfolds.
Artman, H., & Garbis, C. (1998). Situation awareness as distributed cognition.
Hoffman, R. R., Crandall, B., & Shadbolt, N. (1998). Use of the critical decision method to elicit expert knowledge: A case study in the methodology of cognitive task analysis. Human factors, 40(2), 254-276. - doi:10.1518/001872098779480442
Hutchins, E. (1995a). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Hutchins, E. (1995b). How a cockpit remembers its speeds. Cognitive science, 19(3), 265-288. - doi:10.1207/s15516709cog1903_1
Klein, G., & Armstrong, A. A. (2004). Critical decision method. In N. A. Stanton, A. Hedge, K. Brookhuis, E. Salas, & H. W. Hendrick (Eds.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics methods (pp. 35.31-35.38): CRC press.
O`Hare, D., Wiggins, M., Williams, A., & Wong, W. (2000). Cognitive task analyses for decision centred design and training. In J. Annett & N. A. Stanton (Eds.), Task Analysis. London: London: CRC Press.
Nazir, S., Sorensen, L. J., Øvergård, K. I., & Manca, D. (2015b). Impact of training methods on Distributed Situation Awareness of industrial operators. Safety science, 73, 136-145. - doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2014.11.015
Nazir, S., Carvalho, P. V. R., Øvergård, K. I., Gomes, J. O., Vidal, M. C., & Manca, D. (2015a). Distributed Situation Awareness in Nuclear, Chemical, and Maritime Domains. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 36, 409-414.
Salmon, P. M., Stanton, N. A., & Walker, G. H. (2009). Distributed Situation Awareness: Theory, Measurement and Application to Teamwork. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Stanton, N. A. (2006). Hierarchical task analysis: Developments, applications, and extensions. Applied ergonomics, 37(1), 55-79. - doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2005.06.003
Stanton, N. A. (2014). Representing distributed cognition in complex systems: how a submarine returns to periscope depth. Ergonomics, 57(3), 403-418. - doi:10.1080/00140139.2013.772244
Stanton, N. A., Baber, C., & Harris, D. (2008). Modelling Command and Control: Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Stanton, N. A., Stewart, R., Harris, D., Houghton, R. J., Baber, C., McMaster, R., . . . Young, M. S. (2006). Distributed situation awareness in dynamic systems: theoretical development and application of an ergonomics methodology. Ergonomics, 49(12-13), 1288-1311 - doi:10.1080/00140130600612762
Citation note:
Norstein E., Sharma A., Jungefeldt S., Nazir S.: Distributed Situation Awareness in a Demanding Maritime Operation: A Case Study of the Subsea Segment. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 13, No. 4, doi:10.12716/1001.13.04.14, pp. 811-822, 2019
Authors in other databases:
Erlend Norstein:
Amit Sharma:
Sophie Jungefeldt:

Other publications of authors:

File downloaded 348 times

Important: cookie usage
The website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony