Journal is indexed in following databases:

2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
Development of a Behavioural Marker System for Rating Cadet's Non-Technical Skills
1 Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
2 Portuguese Naval School, Lisbon, Portugal
3 University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
4 Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA
ABSTRACT: Despite the adoption of crew resource management training for bridge teams over the last decades, the training is still heavily focussed on technical achievements. In an educational context, the situation is more problematical, since with requirement of developing the technical skills, there is a need to build and evaluate the non-technical skills of cadets with little experience in bridge team management. In parallel with the application of team leadership models, the Portuguese Naval Academy conducted a research to improve the development and assessment of non-technical skills in bridge simulators. This paper describes the method used to identify the key non-technical skills required for naval cadets and to develop a behavioural marker system for their measurement. A literature review of behavioural marker systems was supplemented with an analysis of interviews conducted with students and simulator instructors. Additionally, further analysis of Portuguese Navy accidents reports was made, applying the HFACS framework to identify the relevant non-technical skills involved in the accidents. The resulting rating system covers five skill categories (leadership, situational awareness, communication, team work and decision making), each one with three rating elements. The framework is currently under evaluation tests in bridge simulators sessions, within an educational context.
Barnett, M., Gatfield, D., & Pekcan, C. (2006). Non-technical skills: the vital ingredient in world maritime technology ? In Proceedings of the International Conference on World Maritime Technology. London: Institute of Marine engineering, Science and technology.
Bué, I. M. G., Lopes, F. C., & Semedo, Á. (2015). The Use of the Portuguese Naval Academy Navigation Simulator in Developing Team Leadership Skills. TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, (June), 83–88.
Celik, M., & Cebi, S. (2009). Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(1), 66–75.
Chauvin, C., Clostermann, J.-P., & Hoc, J.-M. (2009). Impact of training programs on decision-making and situation awareness of trainee watch officers. Safety Science, 47(9), 1222–1231.
Chauvin, C., Lardjane, S., Morel, G., Clostermann, J.-P., & Langard, B. (2013). Human and organisational factors in maritime accidents: Analysis of collisions at sea using the HFACS. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 59, 26–37.
Chen, S. T., Wall, A., Davies, P., Yang, Z., Wang, J., & Chou, Y. H. (2013). A Human and Organisational Factors (HOFs) analysis method for marine casualties using HFACS-Maritime Accidents (HFACS-MA). Safety Science, 60, 105–114.
Cross, S. J. (2003). Enhancing Competence Based Training and Assessment for Marine Engineers through the Realism of Virtual Presentation. In International Conference on Marine Simulation and Ship Maneuverability MARSIM ’03 (pp. 1–7). Kanazawa, Japan.
Cross, S. J. (2007). Competence Based Learning and Evaluation: Developments and Non-Developments in MET. In IFSMA 33rd Annual General Assembly. Antwerp, Belgium.
Cross, S. J. (2012). Aspects of simulations in MET - improving shipping safety and economy. In International Maritime Lecturers Association 20th Conference.
Devitt, K. R., & Holford, S. D. (2010). The development of resource management and leadership behavioural markers for the Merchant Navy. In Proceedings of the Maritime Human Resource Solutions Conference. St John’s Newfoundland, Canada. Retrieved from
Emad, G. R. (2010). Rethinking Vocational Education and training: Hauling in from Maritime Education. In R. V. Nata (Ed.), Progress in Education (Vol. 22, pp. 125–140). Nova Science Publishers.
Emad, G. R., & Roth, W.-M. M. (2008). Contradictions in the practices of training for and assessment of competency: A case study from the maritime domain. Education and Training, 50(3), 260–272.
Ergai, A., Cohen, T., Sharp, J., Wiegmann, D., Gramopadhye, A., & Shappell, S. (2016). Assessment of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS): Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Safety Science, 82(May), 393–398.
Fletcher, G., Flin, R., McGeorge, P., Glavin, R., Maran, N., & Patey, R. (2004). Rating non-technical skills: developing a behavioural marker system for use in anaesthesia. Cognition, Technology & Work, 6(3), 165–171.
Flin, R., Martin, L., Goeters, K.-M., Hörmann, H.-J., Amalberti, R., Valot, C., & Nijhuis, H. (2003). Development of the NOTECHS (non-technical skills) system for assessing pilots’ CRM skills. Human Factors and Aerospace Safety, 3(2), 95–117.
Flin, R., O’Connor, P., & Crichton, M. (2008). Safety at the sharp end: a guide to non-technical skills. Aldershot England: Ashgate.
Flin, R., Yule, S., Paterson-Brown, S., Rowley, D. I., & Maran, N. (2006). The Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) System Handbook v1.2: Structuring observation, rating and feedback of surgeons’ behaviours in the operating theatre. University of Aberdeen. Retrieved from
Forsman, F., Hill, J., Dobbins, T., Brand, T., & MacKinnon, S. N. (2012). Exploiting Simulation to Enhance Operational Effectiveness and Interoperability in Littoral Maritime Operations. In STO Modelling and Simulation Group Conference.
Hayward, B. J., & Lowe, A. R. (2010). Chapter 12 – The Migration of Crew Resource Management Training. In Crew Resource Management (pp. 317–342).
Hetherington, C., Flin, R., & Mearns, K. (2006). Safety in shipping: The human element. Journal of Safety Research (Vol. 37). London.
Klampfer, B., Flin, R., Helmreich, R. L., Hausler, R., Sexton, B., Fletcher, G., … Dieckmann, P. (2001). Enhancing Performance in High Risk Environments, Recommendations for the Use of Behavioural Markers. In Behavioral Markers Workshop, GIHRE. Zürich, Switzerland.: Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz Foundation.
Long, W. M. (2011). The development of a prototype behavioral marker system for US Navy officers of the deck. Safety Science, 49(10), 1381–1387.
Magdy Ali Elashkar. (2016). the Use of Simulation Techniques in the Development of Non-Technical Skills for Marine Officers. International Journal of General Engineering and Technology (IJGET), 5(5), 19–26.
McCallum, M. C., & Smith, M. W. (2000). Evaluating Simulators for use in assessment of mariner proficiencies. In Proceedings of MARSIM 2000 (pp. 1–8). Orlando, Florida.
Olaiya, J. Oi. (2016). Marine Simulators: Technical And Performance Specifications - A Paradoxical Parallelism ? In IAMU.
Rothblum, A., Wheal, D., Withington, S., Shappel, S. A., Wiegmann, D. A., Boehm, W., & Chaderjian, M. (2002). Improving incident investigation through inclusion of human factors. United States Department of Transportation -- Publications & Papers, (32). Retrieved from
Saeed, F. (2010). The Importance of Non-Technical Skills in the Maritime Education. In International Association of Maritime Universities AGA11 (pp. 103–114). Busan, South Korea.
Shappell, S., & Wiegmann, D. (2000). The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System – HFACS. Federal Aviation Administration Technical Report DOT/FAA/AM-00/7. Springfield, Virginia: National Technical Information Service.
Tsoukalas, V. D., Papachristos, D. A., Stefanakou, A. A., Tsoumas, N. K., & Nikitakos, N. (2015). Questionnaire assessment of training in a marine simulator. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 14(2), 293–312.
Citation note:
da Conceição V.F.P., Basso J.C., Lopes C.F., Dahlman J.: Development of a Behavioural Marker System for Rating Cadet's Non-Technical Skills. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 11, No. 2, doi:10.12716/1001.11.02.07, pp. 255-262, 2017

Other publications of authors:

File downloaded 1008 times

Important: cookie usage
The website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony