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2023 Journal Impact Factor - 0.7
2023 CiteScore - 1.4




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
Cyber Risk Assessment for SHips (CRASH)
1 Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Gjøvik, Norway
ABSTRACT: The maritime industry is undergoing a digital transformation, with an increasing integration of Information Technology (IT) and Operational Technology (OT) systems on modern vessels. Its multiple benefits notwithstanding, this transformation brings with it increased cybersecurity risks, that need to be identified, assessed, and managed. Although several cyber risk assessment methodologies are available in the literature, they may be challenging for experts with a maritime background to use. In this paper we propose a simple and effective cyber risk assessment methodology, named Cyber Risk Assessment for SHips (CRASH), that can be easily implemented by maritime professionals. To showcase its workings, we assessed 24 cyber risks of the Integrated Navigation System (INS) using CRASH and we validated the method by comparing its results to those of another method and by means of interviews with experts in the maritime sector. CRASH can aid shipping companies in effectively assessing cyber risks as a step towards selecting and implementing necessary measures to enhance the cyber security of cyber-physical systems onboard their vessels.
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Citation note:
Oruc A., Kavallieratos G., Gkioulos V., Katsikas S.K.: Cyber Risk Assessment for SHips (CRASH). TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 18, No. 1, doi:10.12716/1001.18.01.10, pp. 115-124, 2024
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