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2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
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ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
BeiDou and Galileo, Two Global Satellite Navigation Systems in Final Phase of the Construction, Visibility and Geometry
1 Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
ABSTRACT: Spatial segment is one of three segments of each satellite navigation systems (SNS). Nowadays two SNSs, GPS and GLONASS, are fully operational, two next SNSs, BeiDou in China and Galileo in Europe, are in final phase of the construction. In the case of China system this segment will consist of 35 satellites with three types of orbits ? medium (MEO), geostationary (GEO) and inclined geosynchronous (IGSO). As GEO and IGSO satellites can be used in China and Asia-Pacific region only, BeiDou MEO constellation with 27 fully operational satellites will be taken into account in this paper. The orbital planes of the Galileo constellation will be divided in ?slots? that contains at least one operational satellite. The Galileo reference constellation has 24 nominal orbital positions or operational slots in MEO homogeneously distributed in 3 orbital planes; i.e. 8 slots equally spaced per plane. As the error of user?s position obtained from both systems depends on geometry factor DOP (Dilution Of Precision) among other things the knowledge of the number of satellites visible by the user above given masking elevation angle Hmin and the distributions of DOP coefficient values, GDOP in particular, is very important. The lowest and the greatest number of satellites visible in open area by the observer at different latitudes for different Hmin, the percentage of satellites visible above angle H, distributions (in per cent) of satellites azimuths and GDOP coefficient values for different Hmin for BeiDou and Galileo systems at different latitudes are presented in the paper.
BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, Signal in Space In-terface Control Document Open Service Signal (Version 2.0), China Satellite Navigation Office, December 2013
BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, Open service, Performance Standard (Version 1.0), China Satellite Navigation Office, December 2013
Beitz J. W. 2016. Engineering Satellite-Based Navigation and Timing Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Signals, and Receivers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
European GNSS Service Centre, Constellation Information, 2016
Januszewski J. 2010. Systemy satelitarne GSP, Galileo i inne. Warszawa: PWN, (in polish)
Martin H. 2013. U.S. Space-Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing policy and Program Update. 8th International Committee on GNSS, Dubai
Munich Satellite Navigation Summit, Munich, 2016
Report on the Development of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (version 2.2) 2013. China Satellite Navigation Office
Citation note:
Januszewski J.: BeiDou and Galileo, Two Global Satellite Navigation Systems in Final Phase of the Construction, Visibility and Geometry. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 10, No. 3, doi:10.12716/1001.10.03.01, pp. 381-387, 2016

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