Journal is indexed in following databases:

2022 Journal Impact Factor - 0.6
2022 CiteScore - 1.7




ISSN 2083-6473
ISSN 2083-6481 (electronic version)




Associate Editor
Prof. Tomasz Neumann

Published by
TransNav, Faculty of Navigation
Gdynia Maritime University
3, John Paul II Avenue
81-345 Gdynia, POLAND
A Cost Benefit Analysis Approach to Identify Improvements in Merchant Navy Deck Officers' HELM (Human Element Leadership and Management) Training
1 Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
ABSTRACT: A review of maritime accidents conducted over the last decade confirms that human error is the main contributing factor in these incidents. Well-developed Non-Technical Skills (NTS) can reduce the effects of human error. NTS include both interpersonal and cognitive skills such as situation awareness, teamwork, decision-making, leadership, managerial skills, communication and language skills. In a crisis situation good NTS allow a deck officer to recognise the problem quickly, take action to manage the situation, and utilise the available team members safely and effectively. This paper identifies the importance of NTS training for merchant navy deck officers. It also highlights room for improvement in the existing HELM training. Research has shown that at present the structure of HELM training is not very effective. The other safety critical domains? efforts into NTS developments are investigated and examples of best practice are adapted into the maritime domain?s NTS training. Suggestions are given for improvements to the HELM course based on proven successful methods in other safety critical domains (aviation and anaesthesia). A subsequent Cost Benefit Analysis for improving deck officers? NTS is also carried out through the use of Bayesian Networks and Decision Tree Modelling.
Akhtar, M. A. and Utne, I. B., 2014. Human fatigue’s effect on the risk of maritime groundings – A Bayesian Network modelling approach. Safety Science, 62, pp. 427-440.
ANTS, 2014. A behavioural marker system for rating Anaesthetists’ Non-technical Skills. [online], Industrial Psychology Research Centre, Aberdeen University. Available at: [Accessed 12th Feb 2014]
Arthur D. Little, 2004. Driving safety culture: Identification of leadership qualities for effective safety management, Final report to Maritime and Coastguard Agency, October 2004.
Barnett, M., Gatfield, D. and Peckan, C., 2006. Non-technical skills: the vital ingredient in world maritime technology. 2nd World maritime technology conference; WMTC 2006 maritime innovation delivering global solutions, London 6-10 March 2006.
Bhagwat, M., 2012. Simulation and anaesthesia. Indian journal of Anaesthesia, 56 (1), Jan-Feb 2012, pp. 14-20.
CAA, 2006. Crew Resource Management Training: Guidance for flight crew, CRM instructors (CRMIS) and CRM instructor-examiners (CRMIES). Civil Aviation Authority, CAP 737, 26 November 2006.
Costa Cruise, 2014. Company Profile [online]. Available at: [Accessed 20th Feb 2014]
Davitt, K. and Holford, S., 2015. The development of resource management and leadership behavioural marker for the merchant navy. Warsash Maritime Academy, Southampton Solent University, pp. 1-24.
Diehl, A. E., 1991. Does cockpit management training reduce aircrew error? Paper presented at the 22nd international seminar, international society of air safety investigators, Canberra Australia, November 1991.
Fletcher, G., Flin, R and Mcgeorge, P., 2003. Review of human factors research in anaesthesia, University of Aberdeen SCPMDE Project: RDNES/991/C.
Flin, R., Martin, L., Geosters, K., Hoermann, J., Amalberti, R., Valot, C., and Nijhuis, H., 2003. Development of the NOTECHS (Non-Technical Skills) system for assessing pilots’ CRM skills. Human Factors and Aerospace Safety, 3 (2), pp. 95-117.
Flin, R. and Maran, N., 2004. Identifying and training non-technical skills for teams in acute medicine. Qual Saf Health Care 2004; 13 (1), pp. 80-84.
Flin, R., 2013. Non-technical skills for anaesthetists, surgeons and scrub practitioners (ANTS, NOTTS and SPLINTS). The Healthcare Foundation, July 2013, pp. 1-9.
Gatfield D., 2008. Behavioural markers for the assessment of competence in crisis management. PhD thesis, Southampton Solent University.
Gill, G. W. And Wahner, C. M., 2012. The Herald of Free Enterprise casualty and its effect on maritime safety philosophy. Marine technology society journal, 2012, 46 (6), pp. 72-84.
Habberley, J., Barnett, M., Gatfield, D., Musselwhite, C. and Mcneil G., 2001. Simulator training for handling escalating emergencies. United Kingdom Maritime and Coastguard Agency research project 467. Southampton: The Maritime and Coastguard Agency.
Helmreich, R. L., Merritt, A. C., and Wilhelm, J. A., 1999. The evolution of Crew Resource Management Training in commercial aviation. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9(1), pp. 19-32.
Hetherington, C., Flin, R. and Mearns, K., 2006. Safety in shipping: the human element. Journal of safety research, 37, pp. 401-411.
IAMU, 2010. International Association of Maritime Universities’ review of Manila amendments. International Association of Maritime Universities Annual General Assembly 14-18th October 2010, Pusan, Korea.
IMO, 2011. STCW Convention and STCW Code – Including 2010 Manila Amendments. International Maritime Organisation, London, , ISBN 978-92-801-11528-4.
IMO, 2015. Brief History of IMO [online] International Maritime Organisation. Available at: [Accessed 1st June 2015]
Janessens, D., Wets, G., Brijs, T., Vanhoof, T., Arentze, T. and Timmermans, H., 2005. Integrating Bayesian networks and decision trees in a sequential rule-based transportation model. European Journal of Operational Research, 175, pp. 16-34.
Kanki, B.G., Helmreich, R. L. and Anca, J., 2010. Crew Resource Management. Elsevier.
Lieto, A. D., 2014. Costa Concordia Anatomy of an organisational accident [online]. Available at: [Accessed 25th March 2014]
Livingston, P., Zolpys, L., Mukwesi, C., Twagirumugabe, T., Whynot, S. and Macleod (2014) Non-technical skills of anaesthesia providers in Rwanda: an ethnography. Pan Africa Medical Journal. 2014; 19:97 doi:10.11604/pamj.2014.19.97.5205, pp. 1-7.
Long, W. M.,2010. Development of the nontechnical skills for officer of the deck (NTSOD) rating form. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California.
Matveeskii A. S. and Gravenstein N. (2008) Role of simulators, educational programmes, and non-technical skills in anaesthesia resident selection, education and competency assessment. Journal of clinical care, 23, pp. 167-172.
MCA, 2010. The human element – guide to human behaviour in the shipping industry. The stationary office, UK.
MCA 2013a. Human Element Leadership and Training. MIN (Marine Information Note), Maritime and Coastguard Agency, 455, Crown copyright 2013.
MCA, 2013b. Merchant shipping (STCW) regulation impact assessment. Maritime and Coastguard Agency, IA No: DfT00256, Date 31/10/2013.
MCA, 2015. HELM Syllabus Evaluation Survey. Accessed on 24th Feb 2016.
MNTB, 2012. Human Element Leadership and Management – Operational and Management Levels. 1st Edition, Merchant Navy Training Board.
NBC News 2014. Costa Concordia Salvage Operations [online]. Available at: [Accessed on 20th Feb 2014].
O’Connor, P., Hormann, H., Flin, R., Lodge, M., Goeters, K., and The Jartel Group, 2002. Developing a method for evaluating crew resource management skills: a European perspective. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 12 (3), pp. 265-288.
O’Connor, P. and Long, W. M., 2011. The development of a prototype behavioural marker system for US navy officer of the deck. US Navy research, Paper 39, pp. 1381-1387.
Pedigo, M., Ma, J., Gildea, K., Holcomb, H., Hackworth, C. And Hiles, J. J., 2011. The line operations safety audit program: transitioning from flight operations to maintenance and ramp operations. Federal Aviation Administration, DOT/FAA/AM-11/15, Office of Aerospace Medicine, Washington, DC 20591.
Richardson, T, (1997) A review of an introduction to Bayesian networks. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 92 (439), pp. 1215-1216.
Saeed, F. and Riahi, R., 2014. Development of taxonomy for deck officers’ non-technical skills (NTS) and analysing training needs for human element, leadership and management (HELM) course. International Association of Maritime Universities. ISBN 978-4-907408-06-0.
Saeed, F. Wall, A. Roberts, C, Riahi, R. and Bury, A., 2016. A proposed quantitative methodology for evaluation of the effectiveness of Human Element and Leadership and Management (HELM) training in the UK. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, DOI 10.1007/s13437-016-0107-7.
Tally, W. K., 2012. Blackwell companion to maritime economics. Blackwell publishing limited.
Wagener, F. and Ison, D. C., 2014. Crew resource management application in commercial aviation. Journal of aviation technology and engineering. 3 (2), pp. 2-13.
Wall, A. D. (2015), Subject Head, LJMU, Interview, 27th May, 2015.
Yee, B., Naik, V., Joo, H. S. et al., 2005. Non-technical skills in Anaesthesia Crisis Management with Repeated exposure to simulation-based education. Anaesthesiology, 103 (2), pp.
Citation note:
Saeed F., Bury A., Bonsall S., Riahi R.: A Cost Benefit Analysis Approach to Identify Improvements in Merchant Navy Deck Officers' HELM (Human Element Leadership and Management) Training. TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, Vol. 10, No. 4, doi:10.12716/1001.10.04.02, pp. 551-560, 2016

Other publications of authors:

File downloaded 1140 times

Important: cookie usage
The website uses certain cookies. A cookie is a text-only string of information that the TransNav.EU website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer. Cookies allow the website to perform properly and remember your browsing history. Cookies also help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Cookies alone cannot be used to identify you.
Akceptuję pliki cookies z tej strony