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1 DEVELOPMENTOFMARITIMETRANSPORT
TECHNOLOGY
More than 90 percent of the world trade is
transported by sea. In maritime shipping of the last
decadesofthetwentiethcenturytherewerechanges
andtechnologicalinnovations.Inmaritimetransport,
automationandoptimizationhavebeenintroducedin
the transhipment process. Technological progress
tookpla
cealsointheconstructionofmarinevessels.
As the world tonnage went up, the parameters of
vessels used for the transport of general cargo and
bulkcargoalsoincreased.
In 1971 the first ship with the cargo carrying
capacity of 372 400 tonnes was built. Specialized
vessels were built. Cha
nges in transport technology
resultedinthemodificationsofthemodelofmaritime
navigation.
All changes were initiated by the International
Maritime Organization (IMO) on the basis of legal
instrumentssuchasconventions, resolutions,
handbooks and programs for the development of
technicalsystemsinmaritimeshipping.
Ruthlesseconomiccalculationcausedcompet
ition
in maritime transport among the shipowners.
Economicbattleonthefreightmarketsbroughtabout
transport development, namely the development in
cargohandlingandtranshipmenttechnologies.
Thereductionofthecostofcargoshippingbysea
depended on the operating costs of the ship. Fixed
and variable costs play a ma
jor role in achieving
efficiencyinvesseloperation.Itisaboutfittingvessels
toagivenshippingline,fuelcostsandconditionsfor
choosing marine environment including navigation
optimization. There was development of reliable
modelsofweatherforecasts.Animportantelementin
the sea transport process is the technology of cargo
loading,dischargingandit
scarriage.Shipparameters
suchasloadingcapacityanddraftplayamajorrolein
assessing the efficiency of cargo transport.
Introduction of cargo containerization was a
revolutionarysolutiontoloweringthecostsofgeneral
cargotransportbysea.
Asfar asbulk cargo is concerned, the size of the
cargocarryingcapacityofashipwasdeterminedby
the type of cargo and condit
ions on the shipping
route.
In 1947 ISO started work on the principles of
standardization of containers used in shipping [2].
The first container was patented in 1956 by an
Changing the Model of Maritime Navigation
M.Jurdziński
GdyniaMaritimeUniversity,Gdynia,Poland
ABSTRACT:Thepaperdescribesashorthistoryrelatedtothedevelopmentofmaritimetransportattheturnof
the20thcentury.Aclassicnavigationmodelusedsincethe