457
1 INTRODUCTION
The elearning and distance education technologies
(DET) application in international educational
institutionstakesoneofthemostimportantplacesin
the education process management. In Russia the
definition of “distance education” (next DE) was
legallydeterminedin1995:“Distanceeducationisthe
complex of educational services, giving to general
popula
tion in country and abroad, using special
informational and educational environment on any
distance from educational institutions”. For the past
20 years, DE has changed dramatically: teaching
methods have changed, the diversity of systems
intendedtouseDEhasgrownandthepopularityof
usingthisteachingmethodhasincreasedtoo.Thisis,
part
ially, due to the fact that using Internet as the
educationprocessmediaisnecessaryforaquickdata
search,professors’andstudents’communicationand
theirresourcesoutreachingaswell.
2 THEELEARNINGANDDISTANCE
EDUCATIONTECHNOLOGIESWORLD
EXPERIENCE
According to various researches, international
educational Inst
itutions, (including those that are
specialized in Maritime Education and Training
(MET)processoftrainingseafarersandarereported
tobeofficialmembersoftheInternationalAssociation
ofMaritimeUniversities(IAMU),hasbeenusingthe
elearning and DET for a long period of time: 710
yearson theav
erageormorethan 15years insome
cases.
The elearning and distance education
technologiesareusedatdifferentlevelsofeducation;
generallytheyareappliedforadvancedprofessional
training.High and higher education programs
apply the elearning and distance education
technologies as an addition to the traditional
education.Itisnecessarytopointouttha
tthereisa
National list of professions, issued by the Russian
Federation Ministryof Education andScience Order
№ 22, dated January 20th 2014, which electronic
Compliance with Legal Aspects of the Applying of
e-Learning in the Training of Seafarers
S.S.Sokolov,N.M.Kovalnogova,A.V.Mitrofanova,V.A.Stepanov&A.P.Gorobtsov
A
dmiralMakarovStateUniversityofMaritimeandInlandShipping,SaintPetersburg,Russia
ABSTRACT:The articleexamines applicabilityof theworld experienceofelearning anddistanceeducation
technologiesstructuretoSTCWrecommendationsandnationallegalrequirementsoftheRussianFederation.
TherearecomprehensivecomparativeanalysisofadistancelearningsystemandSTCWrecommendations.
There aresome resultsof the distance education system LMS “FARWATER”test period for the benefits of
seafarersvoca
tional educationand the AdmiralMakarov State Universityof Maritime andInland Shipping
(AdmiralMakarovSUMIS)wheretheLMS“FARWATER”wasdesigned.
http://www.transnav.eu
the International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 11
Number 3
September 2017
DOI:10.12716/1001.11.03.10
458
education and training (ET)programs restrict to
accept if solely provided by elearning and distance
education technologies. Actually, this fact prevents
fromtheelearninganddistanceeducation
technologies to be applied to ET programs on
designatedprofessions.[1].
Tocarryouttheelearninganddistanceeducation
technologies
education process, it is essential to use
programtechnical, technological and
telecommunicationaids.
TheRussianandInternationalmarketsofdistance
educational services and maritime and inland
shipping educational markets provide various
simulators, webapplied training, allowing to carry
outworkshopsbyusingmodelsofvariousvesselson
virtualareaat
riverandatsea.
Websimulator for maritime education is the
distance accessible software package, which allows
importing any maritime objects, devices, systems or
equipmentwithspecifiedlevelofreality.Accesstoa
websimulatorforauserisbasedonatrivialbrowser
and connection to the Internet. Websimulators
rely
on networking and cloud technologies, which allow
eliminatingthelowtechnicalrequirementsbarrierto
theuserequipment.Complexequipmentdesignedfor
trainingofmaritimeandinlandshippingpersonnelto
be developed on the basis of personal computer
technologies. It allows increasing simplicity of
simulators educational process, being too expensive
atthesametime.
Originalaidstoelearninganddistanceeducation
technologies areconsidered to be Learning
Management System (LMS) or Learning Content
ManagementSystem(LCMS).Suchanadvancedtype
ofsystemsletnotonlythecoursegeneralinformation
beavailable,butprovideascopeofotherpossibilities
forsoftware
developers:
providing set of necessary tools for the
development of curriculum (the creation of
lectures,workshopsasineducationalmaterial)
monitoringthetrainingactivity(testsandtasks)
reportingonlearningeffectiveness(statistics)
providing communication between students and
teacher(questionnaire,forumsandchats)
manage studentsactivity
(registration and
controllingaccess)
participants distribution intogroupsfor common
coursesreporting
integration of an additional elements into
educational process (training videos, animation,
glossary,linkstosourcesandetc.)
providingprotectiondevicesneedfornetwork.
There are individual tools to carry out webinars
and virtual classes that can
be used for extended
functionalityof a system togo alongwith LMS and
LCMS. The most widely used technology is LMS
suchasMoodle,Blackboard,etc.,whicharebasedon.
Sometimes educational institutions use several
programplatformstomanagedtheeducationprocess
onabaseofMoodle,Blackboard,
Sakai,Canvas,edX,
Coursera and others, including own platforms, for
example.
Thediagramonfigure1showsthatMoodleLMS
(learning management system Modular Object
Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) is widely
usedby30%oftheobservededucationalinstitutions.
Looking from the geographic point, this platform is
mostlyinstalledinEastern
Europeand muchlessin
Asia, Africa and Americas. Approximately 30% of
educational institutions design their own education
and training application and distribute it free of
charge in Internetshops for iOS or Android
operationalsystems.
Figure1. The elearning and distance education
technologies application in observed educational
institutions
Educational institutions issue training materials
and include it in elibraries as well as in universal
applicationssuchasiTunesU(iTunesUappearstobe
themostprominentonlinecatalogueoffreeofcharge
books all over the world). To store and distribute
lecture, conference and practical training video
materials,
METInstitutionshavegotusedtomaking
up their own channels at videohosting, such as
YouTube, Wikimedia Commons, Vimeo.com, Flickr,
toletvariousmaterialsbeavailableforfree.
3 ELEARNINGANDDISTANCEEDUCATION
TECHNOLOGIESLEGALBACKGROUND
ThecorelegaldocumentinRussiaforelearningand
DET appliance
by Educational institutions including
METisconsideredtobetheStateLaw№273SLon
“EducationinRussianFederation”,issuedDecember
29th2012[2].
This billis intendedto be a conciseset of public
relationsappearingtoexistwithineducationprocess,
when people use their right to get education,
providingtheStateguaranteesofrightsandfreedoms
tothecitizensinthefieldofeducationand.Moreover
the document determines the legal status of all
education process participants and it establishes the
economic,legalandorganizationalbasisofeducation
andtrainingintheRussianFederation.
In addition to the State Law№273 the Federal
State Education Standards are applied. There are
some other legal documents issued by the
Russian
Federation Ministry of Transport and Ministry of
EducationandScienceintendedtomanageeducation
and training process. For example, Ministry of
EducationandScienceOrderN2,datedJanuary9th,
2014,ʺOn assertion of the elearning and distance
education technologies order of application by
educational institutionsʺ [3]establishes
requirements
forDET.