363
1 INTRODUCTION
During the Second World War the Polish coast was
one of major battlegrounds. To this day various
unexplodedordnance(UXO)isfoundeitherinseaor
along the coast. In result of the war, the territory of
Poland was left replete with great amount of
unexploded ordnance. Dozens of millions of such
ordnance were found and neut
ralized after the war,
butalmostentireterritoryofthecountryneededtobe
thoroughlysearchedinordertolocalizedevicesthat
could potentially endanger human lives. More than
70yearsaftertheendofthewar,operationsaimedat
neutralizing underwater unexploded ordnance
(UUXO)lyingontheseabed,roadsteads,andportsor
alongthecoast
linearestillconducted.Theremnants
ofthewararestilla causeofaccidentsthatthreaten
livesorhealthofthecitizensand humanactivityon
sea.
Manyofsuchdevicesareunexplodedordnanceof
largecalibers or sizes such as art
illery shells, mines,
bombs,torpedoes,rocketsorgrenades.Duetoalong
exposuretochanging meteorologicalconditions,they
areconsideredunpredictable.Variousfactors,suchas
movement, high temperature, physical contact with
anotherobjectorattemptsoftransportingthem,may
causetheysudden explosion. For this reason, under
nocircumstancesshouldtheybea
pproachedbyany
person,whichhasnotbeenproperlytrainedandthus
does not possess the required qualifications and
equipment.
To ensure appropriate execution of the task of
cleansing the country’s territory of aforementioned
remnants, 39 Demining Patrols (DP) in the whole
Polish Armed Forces and 2 Explosive Ordnance
DisposalDiversGroups(EODDG)specificallyinthe
Polish Navy, have been created. Among them we
dist
inguish:
intheLandForces‐35xDP
intheNavy‐2xDPand2xCDG
intheAirForces‐2xDP
TheNavy patrolsareresponsible forareas ofsea
bea
ches,theHelPeninsula,navalports,theNavys
airportsandotherareaswheretheNavysunitsare
Safety of Transport and Disposal for Explosive
Ordnance in Ports, Roadsteads and at Open Sea
A.Cichocki&M.Chmieliński
PolishNavalAcademy,Gdynia,Poland
ABSTRACT: In the article principles, pertaining to the safety of transport for explosives and unexploded
ordnance of military origin and procedures that guarantee maximal effectiveness of the process of their
neutralization, are presented. Since the end of the 2nd World War operations of neutralizing unexploded
ordnance (UXO) of tha
t era that still lie in ports, roadsteads and coastal areas are continuously conducted.
DuringthatwarthePolishcoastwasoneofthemajor battlegroundsandtillnow unexplodedordnanceare
foundeitherontheseabedoralongthecoast.Variousanalysesstatethatsearchingtheseaandthecoast
linefor
unexplodedordnanceisataskstilltobecarriedoutintheforeseeablefuture.
http://www.transnav.eu
the International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 11
Number 2
June 2017
DOI:10.12716/1001.11.02.21
364
stationed. The CDGs are responsible for sea areas
allocated to the 3
rd
Ships Flotilla and the 8
th
Coastal
DefenseFlotilla,aswellasneutralizingUXOsinsea
areas where, due to the depth, land patrols cannot
operate.
TheAirForcepatrolsonlyoperateontheAirForce
provinggroundsinNadarzyceandUstka.Thesizeof
the assigned region corresponds to the amount of
interventionsusually
conductedinit.Onaverage,up
to4patrolscanbelocatedinonevoivodship.
2 UNEXPLODEDORDNANCE
CHARACTERISTICS
As explosive ordnance we define any devices of
military origin, that could pose a threat if handled
improperly, such as bombs, shells, wide array of
mines, projectiles, rocketpropelled grenades,
grenades, fuses
or other metallic scrap that could
containexplosivematerialsremnants[3].
Dangerousordnancearevariousotherdevices(of
military, industrial or other origin) that have
inflammable,toxic,orcorrosivepropertiesandposea
threatwhenmishandledor whenincontactwithair
or high temperature. The definition contains for
example
flammableliquids,contents offire
extinguishers, steel bottles, or substances stored and
usedinlaboratories.
Explosive ordnance of military origin that lay in
thegroundcanbedividedinto:
unexplodedordnancebombsandprojectilesthat
didnotexplodeaftermakingcontactwithearth;
dudsprojectilesthat,due
totheirfaultydesign,
failedtofireoncommand;
artillery shells and bombs left unattended after
cessationofhostilities;
antipersonnelandantitankmines;
remnants of post‐ war operations aimed at
destroyingartilleryshells;
underwater unexploded ordnance and
ammunitionleftonseabeds(seamines,torpedoes,
depthcharges,artilleryshells,rockets).
Operations concerning neutralizing unexploded
ordnance are regulated by the Polish Military
Standard‐Detecting, demining and mine clearance
operations,onthebasis of whichinternal documents,
that regulate Polish Armed Force’s operations
pertaining to neutralizing explosives and dangerous
devices,arecreated[6].
The number of leftovers of
military origin is
proportionaltothenumberofammunitionfiredand
bombs dropped down on the particular area, which
numberrelieson:
the duration and intensity of fights conducted in
thegivenarea;
the nature of conducted fights (pursuit fights,
sieges);
thenumberofequipmentavailableat
thedisposal
ofthefightingsides;
the number of defensive fortifications (shelters,
bunkers,trenches,minefields).
Iftheregionhadbeenactivelyusedasaproving
ground before fighting occurred (or after it), the
dangerofencounteringexplosivedevicesinthatarea
rises multiple times. Especially dangerous are the
placeswhich
wereusedasammunitionmagazinesor
dangerous militaryobjectsdisposal grounds, shortly
afterthewar.
Theburialdepthonwhichexplosivedevicesmay
lie depends on their caliber, composition of ground
and various other factors. On average, we could
assumethat75mmcalibershellslieupto1,0meter,
105 mm caliber shells‐1,21,4 meters and 155 mm
calibershellsupto1,6metersbelowtheground.
Bombspenetratethegroundtothedepthof1,0÷
6,0 m‐depending on their mass and size. Leftover
ammunition, antitank and antiinfantry mines are
most frequently found in layers
of humus at 0,3 m.
Some kinds of soils are much more susceptible to
penetration by bombs and projectiles [8]. Research
conductedbyPolishsappersindicatesthat9095%of
theunexplodedordnancefound,aretheremnantsof
the Second World War, the remaining 510% are
eitherremainsof
theFirstWorldWarorwereutilized
fortrainingpurposesaftertheWorldWarII.
Afterthewarwasover,itwasestimated,thatthe
territory of Poland could still contain the following
numberofunexplodedordnance:
1 upto15millionantitankorantiinfantrymines;
2 up to
70 million unexploded projectiles, bombs,
armorpiercingshells;
3 the size of the area that needed clearance was
estimated to be around 220 000250000 square
kilometerswhichconstitutesabout7080%ofthe
entirePolishterritory.
Theseanalyzesprovedtobeunderestimated,since
from 1945 to 1994
sapper patrols neutralized 94,1
million mines and unexploded ordnance of other
sorts[10].
Unexploded ordnance is an explosive device in
which,despiteproper conditions created in order to
ensure detonation, potential chemical energy of the
material wasnot transformed into chemical
energy[8].
Unexploded ordnance in general‐ projectile,
grenadeorbomb
‐inwhich,despiteproperconditions
created in order to ensure detonation (hitting an
obstacle,armedfuse)thepotentialchemicalenergyof
the material was not converted into mechanical
energy (due to chemical transformations in the
materialorfaultymechanisms).
A dud is ammunition that failed to fire due to
technical
defects or was left behind or lost on a
battlefield[7].Adudisaprojectilethatwasnotfired
due to the weapon jamming (too short or badly
positionedstriker,weakstrikerspring,bulletpressed
too deep into the chamber) or ammunition defects
(igniterorprimerpressedtoodeep,damaged
ignition
mass in either the igniter or the primer, wet
gunpowder etc.). Immediate recognition of such
occurrence is difficult and therefore high level of
cautionshouldbetakenwhendealingwithsuchcase.
The dud should be disposed of carefully, not
earlierthan3minutesaftertheattemptoffiring
(hang
firepossibility).