143
1 INTRODUCTION
Dangerous goods (DG) have known in more
commonly as hazardous materials, (abbreviated as
HazMat). Dangerous goods include materials there
are flammable, explosive, radioactive, corrosive,
oxidizing,asphyxiating,toxic,pathogenic,orallergic.
DangerousgoodsinEuropeanUnionare carried
by transport in three manners: by road, rail and
inlandwaterway.

Dangerousgoodscancauseaccidentsandleadto
fires,explosionsand chemical poisoning orburning
with considerable harm to people and the
environment.
Accidents involving DG often require the
intervention of different emergency services and
procedures for the mutual exchange of information
andcoordinationshouldbeputinplace.
The
European Union has passed numerous
directivesandregulationstoavoidthedissemination
and restrict the usage of hazardous substances,
important ones being the restriction of Hazardous
Substances Directive. There are also longstanding
European treaties [12, 18, 19], that regulate the
transportation of hazardous materials by road, rail,
riverandinland
waterways.
Directive 2008/68/EC [3] shall apply to the
transportofdangerousgoodsbyroad,byrailorby
inlandwaterwaywithinor between Member States,
includingtheactivitiesofloadingandunloading,the
transfertoorfromanothermodeoftransportandthe
stops necessitated by the circumstances of the
transport. It shall not apply to the transport of
dangerousgoods:
It shall not apply to the transport of dangerous
goods:
by vehicles, wagons or vessels belonging to or
under the responsibility of the armed forces,by
seagoingvesselsonmaritimewaterwaysforming
partofinlandwaterways,byferriesonlycrossing
an inland waterway orharbour, wholly
Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European
Union and Poland
G.Nowacki
M
ilitaryUniversityofTechnology,Warsaw,Poland
C.Krysiuk
M
otorTransportInstitute,Warsaw,Poland
R.Kopczewski
BrandTheFame,Warsaw,Poland
ABSTRACT:Thepaperrefers tothreatassessmentofdangerousgoods(DG)intransportationoftheEuropean
UnionandtheRepublicofPoland.DangerousgoodsintheEuropeanUnionarecarriedbyinlandwaterways,
railandroad.InPoland87.5%ofDGhavebeencarriedbyroad
and12.5%byrailin2014.DGcancausean
accidentandleadtofires,explosionsandchemicalpoisoningorburningwithconsiderableharmtopeopleand
the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of
dangerousgoods.PropositionofNationalSystem
ofMonitoringDangerousGoodsinPolandwaspresented.
Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and
environment.
http://www.transnav.eu
the International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 10
Number 1
March 2016
DOI:10.12716/1001.10.01.16
144
performed within the perimeter of an enclosed
area.
Thetransportofdangerousgoodsbyroad,railor
inland waterway presents a considerable risk of
accidents. Measures should therefore be taken to
ensure that such transport is carried out under the
bestpossibleconditionsofsafety.
Dangerous goods in Poland are
transported
mainlybyroadandalittleamountbyrail.
Poland ratified the Regulations concerning the
InternationalCarriageofDangerousGoodsbyRail‐
RID and the European Agreement concerning the
InternationalCarriageofDangerousGoodsbyRoad‐
ADRin1975.
Even, ifthe RID andADR agreement is ratified,
unfortunately
therearestillproblemsinthetransport
sector,especiallyproblemsregardingthetransportof
dangerousgoods, thatoffers extensive deficiency at
streets. The most numerous group of dangerous
goods include items of class 3 (liquid, flammable
materials),especiallyliquidfuels.
Thereisnotmonitoringsystemtocontrolinreal
timedangerous
goodsvehicleinPoland.Theaimto
develop a cooperative system for dangerous goods
vehicles(DGV)throughroutemonitoring,rerouting
(in case of need) enforcement and driver support,
based upon dynamic, real time data, in order to
minimizethreatsrelatedtomovementsofDGV.
2 CHARACTERIZATIONOFDANGEROUS
GOODS
2.1 Generalcharacterization
Hazardousmaterialisamaterial or objectwhich, is
notbeacceptedforcarriagebyroad,orisapproved
forsuch carriageundertheconditionslaiddownin
thoseprovisions[12,18,19].Therearenineclassesof
dangerousgoodsasfollows:
Class1.Explosivesubstancesand
articles;
Class 2. Gases, including compressed, liquefied
anddissolvedunderpressuregasesandvapours
(Flammablegasese.g.butane,propaneacetylene.
Nonflammable and nontoxic, likely to cause
asphyxiatione.g.nitrogen,CO
2 oroxidizerse.g.
oxygen.Toxice.g.Chlorine,Phosgene);
Class3.Flammableliquids:
Class 4.1. Flammable solids, selfreactive
substancesandsoliddesensitizedexplosives;
Class 4.2. Substances liable to spontaneous
combustion;
Class4.3.Substanceswhich,incontactwithwater,
emitflammablegases;
Class5.1.Oxidizingsubstances;
Class5.2.Organicperoxides;
Class6.1.Toxicsubstances;
Class6.2.Infectioussubstances;
Class7.Radioactivematerial;
Class8.Corrosivesubstances;
Class9.Miscellaneousdangeroussubstancesand
articles.
2.2 Percentageshareofdangerousgoodsdelivery
The transport of dangerous goods in the EU28
slightly increased
[10] from 79 billion tonne
kilometres in 2010 to almost 81 billion tonne
kilometres in 2012, but felt to 74 billion tonne
kilometresin2013beforeincreasingagainin2014to
reach 75 billion tonnekilometres (+1.5% compared
to2013)table1.
Table1. Transport of dangerous goods by reporting
country,20102014(milliontonnekilometres)[10]
Between2010and2014,mostMemberStateshave
observed a decrease in the transport of dangerous
goods [10]. The highest falls were recorded in the
Netherlands and Bulgaria (29%), followed by
Ireland (25%) and Belgium (20%). On the other
side, very high increases of transport
of dangerous
goods were registered in countries like Slovakia
(+44%), Lithuania (+38%) and Slovenia (+31%)‐
table1.
Table 2 shows the share of the transport of
dangerousgoodsbetweennationalandinternational
transportin2014[10].Formostofthecountries,more
than half of the transport
of dangerous goods is
performed on national territory. Luxembourg has
aspecial pattern: as most of its transport is
international transport, more than 90% of the
transport of dangerous goods is performed in
internationaltransport.Formostcountries,theshare
ofdangerousgoodscarriedininternationaltransport
islinkedto
theshareofinternationaltransport(total
of all goods). Exceptions are Bulgaria, Croatia,
Estonia,Hungary,theNetherlands,Austria,Poland,
Portugal and Romania: international transport
represents more than half of these countries’