211
1 INTRODUCTION
History of shipping is directly and consistently
connected with shipping casualties. These disasters
duetothesizeofvessels,numberofpeopleandcargo
carried by ships are events of great psychological,
economic and social impact. Historically, the causes
ofmaritimedisastersduetolackofinformationwas
a
ttributedtotheforcemajeure(GodʹsWill).Growing
up in recent centuries, ships technical systems,
communicationandcontrolarrangementofthevessel
allowforamoreprecisedeterminationofthecauses
ofthedisasteranditsstages.Knowledgeofcauseand
effect is the basis for the analysis of disasters and
disaster countermeasures drawing conclusions or to
rectifytheconsequences.
The purpose of thi
s article is to present the
problem of assessing maritime casualty in terms of
the SHELL system which consists of: the ship, its
crew,themarineenvironmentandprocedures.
Currently, the rules and principles of analysis of
causes and effect
s are oriented on technical aspects,
humanfactorsandtheimpactof weatherconditions
and correlation between them, but often without
gradation of factors. Reports describing sea casualty
include detailed analysis of the failure process and
large amounts of information about the different
weightandimportance.Thus,theanalysisofdisasters
andsynthesisofimport
antinformationinrelationto
theprocessofdisasterisdifficulttocarryout.Mostof
the accidents analysis is based on calculations,
simulations and expert opinion. Conclusions are
drawn principally based on expert opinions within
limitedrangeofknowledge.
The casualty indicat
ors allow assessing the
casualty and comparing the processes of casualty.
Also casualty factors determine the validity of the
variousfactors.Inaddition,thecasualtyindexfactor
can be used to determine the reliability of expert
opinions.
Methods of Vessel Casualty Process Assessment
J
.Soliwoda
GdyniaMaritimeUniversity,Gdynia,Poland
ABSTRACT: Maritime casualty is an event of considerable economic and social impact
. For this reason,
implemented the reporting systems ofaccidents at sea, and the Administrationwas obligatedto establish a
Commission of Maritime Accidents. On the basis of casualty analysis and reports are developed proposals
preventing similar casualties in the fut
ure. However, there is no uniform evaluation system which check
references of existing regulations and recommendations to the occurred casualties. This paper presents a
methodtoevaluatetheusedmethodsofcasualtypredictionwithrespecttotherealincidentandcatastrophe.
http://www.transnav.eu
the International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 8
Number 2
June 2014
DOI:10.12716/1001.08.02.06
212
2 RULESAFFECTINGINVESTIGATIONINTO
MARITIMECASUALTY
Nationally and internationally reported statistics on
marineaccidentsshowthat80%ormoreofallmarine
accidentsarecausedfullyorinpartbyhumanerror
(Human Factors). In order to prevent similar
casualtiesandincidentsinthefuture,itisnecessaryto
ident
ify the circumstances of the casualty under
investigation and to establish the causes and
contributing factors. IMO (International Maritime
Organization) adopted Casualty Investigation Code
with the guidelines for the Investigation of Human
FactorsinMarineCasualtiesandIncidentsinorderto
promote a common approach to the safety
investigationofmarinecasualtiesandincident
s,and
also to promote cooperation between States in
identifyingthecontributingfactorsleadingtomarine
casualties.TheCodeentered intoforceon 1 January
2010.
1
Figure1.InvestigationProceduresacc.toIMORes.884
Theobjectiveof te Code is to provide a common
approachforStatestoadoptintheconductofmarine
safety investigations into marine casualties and
marineincidents.Marinesafetyinvestigationsdonot
seektoapportionblameordetermineliability.Instead
a marine safety investigation is conducted with the
objectiveofpreventingma
rinecasualtiesandmarine
incidentsinthefuture.TheCode envisages that this
aimwillbeachievedthroughStates:
1 applyingconsistentmethodologyandapproach,to
enable and encourage a broad ranging
investigation,where necessary, inthe interests of
uncovering the causal factors and other safety
risks;and
2 providingreportstotheOrganizat
iontoenable a
wide dissemination of information to assist the
1
CodeoftheInternationalStandardsandRecommended
PracticesforaSafetyInvestigationintoaMarineCasualty
orMarineIncident,IMO,RESOLUTIONMSC.255(84)
(adoptedon16May2008)
international marine industry to address safety
issues.
A marine safety investigation should be separate
from, and independent of, any other form of
investigation. However, itis not the purpose of this
Code to preclude any other form of investigation,
including investigations for action in civil, criminal
andadministrativeproceedings.Further,itisnotthe
int
entof the Code foraState orStates conductinga
marine safety investigation to refrain from fully
reportingonthecausalfactorsofamarinecasualtyor
marine incident because blame or liability, may be
inferredfromthefindings.
Amarinecasualty meansanevent,orasequence
of events, tha
t has resulted in any of the following
which has occurred directly in connection with the
operationsofaship:
1 thedeathof,orseriousinjuryto,aperson;
2 thelossofapersonfromaship;
3 theloss,presumedlossorabandonmentofaship;
4 ma
terialdamagetoaship;
5 the stranding or disabling of a ship, or the
involvementofashipinacollision;
6 materialdamagetomarineinfrastructureexternal
to a ship, that could seriously endangerthe
safetyoftheship,anothershiporanindividual;or
7 severedamagetotheenvironment,orthepotentia
l
for severe damage to the environment, brought
aboutbythedamageofashiporships.
Final element of an investigation is report which
provide necessary information for avoid mentioned
threats and errors in the future. A marine safety
investigationreportcontains:
1 asumma
ryoutliningtheba sicfactsofthemarine
casualty or marine incident and stating whether
any deaths, injuries or pollution occurred as a
result;
2 theidentityoftheflagState,owners,operators,the
company as identified in the safety management
certificate,andtheclassificationsociety(subjectto
anynationallawsconcerningpriva
cy);
3 where relevant the details of the dimensions and
engines of any ship involved, together with a
description of the crew, work routine and other
matters,suchastimeservedontheship;
4 a narrative detailing the circumstances of the
marinecasualtyormarineincident;
5 analysis and comment on the causal fact
ors
including any mechanical, human and
organizationalfactors;
6 a discussion of the marine safety investigation’s
findings, including the identification of safety
issues, and the marine safety investigation’s
conclusions;and
7 whereappropriate,recommendationswithaview
topreventingfuturemarinecasualtiesandmarine
incident
s.
3 INVESTIGATIONPROCEDURESAND
TECHNIQUES
Each State is obliged to develops of investigation
procedures. Classification Societies provide
Collectoccurencedata
Determineoccurencedata
Identifythreatandunsafecondition
Identifyerrororthreat
Identifyunderlayingfactors
Identifypotentatalsafetyproblems
Developsafetyactions