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1 INTRODUCTION
Over time, ship hull structures and motor functions
havebeen improvedand various advanced
navigationdeviceshavebeendevelopedtoensurethe
safetyofmarinevessels(Imazuetal.2003).However,
according to statistics from Japan Coast Gua rd, the
numberofmarinedisastersinvolvingvesselshasnot
declinedsignificant
lyduringthepast10years(Japan
CoastGuard2007).Moreover,theincreasingnumber
ofvesselsmayresultinanincreaseinthenumberof
marine disasters. Study about navigational assistant
methodhasbeendiscussedduringthepastdecades.
First is about the widespread usage of 3D
navigational chart. 3D navigational charts idea was
from Ford. The conclusion of thi
s idea is that 3D
visualizationofchartdatahadthepotentialtobean
informationdecisionsupporttoolforreducingvessel
navigational risks. (C. Gold et al.2005, Wang et
al.2013) Peng et al. discussed the structure of a
navigationaidsinformationsystemwhichint
egrated
of navigationaids information GIS platform,
navigationaids monitoring system and navigation
aidsdistributionsysteminuseofGIS,GPS,AISand
WorldWideWebandmoderncommunication. (Peng
etal.2008)GoralskiandGoldproposedanewtypeof
GIS system for maritime navigation safety aimed at
tacklingthe ma
incause ofmarine accidents‐human
errors by providing navigational aid and decision
support to mariners which, based on kinetic data
structures, a sophisticated 3D visualization engine
and a combination of static and realtime data and
intelligent navigation rules. This system targeted
specifically for small boat owners and ship
navigators, and is aim
ed at providing navigational
aid and decision support. (Goralski R.I et al. 2007)
Goldetal.outlinedthedifficultiesandresolutionsin
developing a real “MarineGIS”. They challenged to
produce a dynamic three dimensional “Pilot Book”
whichprovides marine markers such aslighthouses,
buoys, simulate fog and darkness also contains the
rules for navigation in the proximit
y of individual
Comparison of the Applied of Car Navigation System
and Developed Marine Navigational System
S.Shiotani
KobeUniversity,OrganizationofAdvancedScienceandTechnology,Japan
X.Liu
KobeUniversity,MaritimeSciences,Japan
ABSTRACT:Awatchofficerinsailingashipusesma
ny kinds ofnavigationalinformationtopreventmarine
disasters.Especiallyincoastalseaareasuchasnarrowbayorport,manyshipscrowdsandmarinedisasters
tendtooccurmoreoften. In theseregions,effectivepresentation of varietynavigationalinformationis very
important.Onotherhand,acarnavigationisveryeffect
iveinroadtraffic,However,itisnotusedalmostinsea
traffic.Ourobjectiveinthispaperistoapplya carnavigationtoshipsailing.Also,amarinenavigationsystem
proposedbyuswascomparedwitha carnavigationsystem.Inthi
sstudy,authorstriedsomewaysofutilizing
carnavigationtechnologyforthesea.Toimprovenavigationalsecurityandsafety,weinvestigatedwhethercar
navigation systems could be applied to marine traffic. The applicability was evaluated through several
comparisonsofournavigationassistancedeviceusingGIS.
http://www.transnav.eu
the International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 8
Number 1
March 2014
DOI:10.12716/1001.08.01.03
28
harbors. (C. Gold et al.2005) The authors have
conducted a study of effective and appropriate
provision of a variety of navigational information
withtheaimofimprovingtheeaseofnavigationand
thesafetyofmarinetravel.Navigationalinformation
currentlybeingutilizedisbasedonpaperchartsoran
electronic chart display and informat
ion
system(Wakabayashi et al. 2002). Our methodology
involvesarealisticdisplayofthelandscapethatship
operatorswouldseefromthebridgeandoverlayinga
varietyofcriticalnavigationalinformationontothis
display(Shiotanietal.2011;2011).Ourmethodology
is based on a two‐ and three‐ dimensional
geographical informat
ion system (GIS) (Kawasaki
2006; Sadohara 2005). A threedimensional chart
display is a new concept for the provision of
navigational information. Car navigation systems
already utilize threedimensional displays to assist
drivers;however,nosuchdevicehasbeensufficiently
developedformarinetraffic.Theobjectiveofthi
s
studyistoproposeanewandimprovednavigational
information provision methodology to supplement
traditional charts using a car navigation system. In
recent years, car navigation systems have been
developing rapidly and their performance has
improved dramatically. We aim to determine the
effectiveness and the problems associated with
utilizing car navigation systems for ma
rine vessels
andtofurtherdevelop the provisionofnavigational
information.
2 NORMALCARNAVIGATIONSYSTEMUSAGE
Normal car navigation system has twodimensional
display. A triangle mark indicates the location and
direction of the vehicle. On the display screen, the
system indicates detailed building shape and
providesthe namesof prima
ry buildings. Thename
of the road is also displayed in the corner of the
screen.Therouteoptionsatthenextintersectionwith
lights are also shown. In addition, car navigation
systemprovidesotherhelpfulinformationsuchasthe
locationofbridgesandvariousgeographicalfeatures.
Some car navigation system also provides three
dimensionaldisplay.Theprima
rybuildings thatcan
be seen from the driver’s seat are displayed, which
makes checking the vehicle’s current location easier.
The identification of bus stops also facilitates
determining the vehicle’s location. However, the
buildings are shown as rectangular parallelepipeds
and their colors, windows, and det
ailed shapes are
obscure andnot realistic. If the vehicle is on a road
that is familiar to the driver, the display would be
understandable.However,ifitisanunfamiliarroad,
the obscure information would be less
understandable. Therefore, it is assumed that more
realistic and more det
ailed information would be
necessaryinunfamiliarenvironments.
There is clearly room for improvement of car
navigation systems. Furthermore, two‐ and three‐
dimensional information displays are highly useful
featuresforcarnavigationsystems.
3 MARINENAVIGATIONSYSTEMUSINGACAR
NAVIGATIONSYSTEM
Acarnavigationsystemmakesitpossibletoobserve
allofthelandscapeincludingareasbehindobstructed
views. Therefore, it would be easy to comprehend
whatisgoingonaheadoftheship.Furthermore,the
prima
rybuildingsaredisplayedinthreedimensions
andthenamesofthelocationsareeasytounderstand.
Therefore, it is more comprehensive tha
n the
information provided by charts. The width of the
Ashiya Canal is approximately 100 m that is very
narrow.Therearemanyhousesnearthecoastandthe
coastal roads are well organized. Consequently, the
car navigation system was able to provide detailed
roadandtrafficinformation.
Weather such as rain or fog reduces visibilit
y;
however, a car navigation system can provide the
same information regardless of the weather. In
addition, car navigation systems can provide clear
landscapesinadaylightviewatnightandviceversa.
Oncomparisonoftheinformationobtainedfroma
carnavigationsystemwiththatobtainedfromvideo
imagesandanelectronicchart,itisevidenttha
tacar
navigation system is more useful as a marine
navigational safety device because it is capable of
displaying clear threedimensional landscapes and
facilitatesshipnavigationinthesamemanneritdoes
for road navigation. After an assessment of the ad
va
ntages and disadvantages of such a system, we
believe that it would be effective to use a car
navigationsystemasasupplementtotraditionaltwo
dimensionalelectroniccharts.
At present, a car navigation system can be
purchased for several tenthousand yen, which is
significantly less expensive tha
n a generic
navigational device. Therefore, when utilized on
smallvesselssuchaspleasureboats,itwouldbeboth
costeffectiveandasatisfactoryaidtonavigation.
3.1 Samplevesselandtestdevice
In our study, a car navigation system, portable
automatic identification system (AIS), and video
camera were loadedon a small vesselto invest
igate
the performance and effectiveness of our proposed
methodology.
The AIS was used to capture the position of the
vesselandthevideocamerafilmedtheadjacentland
space.
Figure1.SampleVessel“MukoMaru”