461
1 INTRODUCTION
Tourism as an industry, and nautical tourism as an
integral part of it, is an important sector whose
indirect effects are more important than the direct,
thus supporting the development of lots of other
industries. Within the last 30 years, three core
industriesofnauticaltourism(themarina,
charterand
cruise industries) have been continuously showing
highgrowthrates.Inthistimeofcrisis,withitslack
ofinventivenessandinvestment,nauticaltourismand
itssectorsbecome anewopportunity for
development. Its growth can be clearly seenat local
and regional levels and its constituent parts are
becoming potential for local economic leaders. This
research focuseson the marine industry, juston the
marinas and their effects on the development of
localandregionaleconomy.
Given that the dynamics of the development of
marinas,aswellasoftheirfactors,havenotbeenwell
studied until now, the
aim of the paper is a
presentation of basic factors for development of a
marina and its impact on the development of the
economyofdestinations.Thepurposeofthispaperis
explanationofaphenomenonofthedevelopmentof
nautical tourism and indication the potentials for
development, especially in
Europe, with special
reference to a marina. This paper is a kind of
contributiontothedevelopmentofscientificthought
about the industries that require research for new
scientificknowledgeaboutthem.
Methodologically,decadesofresearch,experience
intheeconomicsectorandtheanalysisandsynthesis
of research serve as a
foundation for this work. An
additionalgroundwork fortheconclusions,presented
inthispaper,istheresearchintocurrenttrendsofthe
The Phenomenon of the
Marina Development to
Support the European Model of Economic
Development
J
.Kizielewicz
GdyniaMaritimeUniversity,Gdynia,Poland
T.Luković
UniversityofDubrovnik,Dubrovnik,Croatia
ABSTRACT:Thedevelopmentofmarinasontheseas,rivers,lakesandcanalsofEuropeoccursintwodifferent
forms:(1)asaprivateinvestmentproject,and(2)asanurbanmunicipalinvestment.Bothformsofinvestment
anddevelopmentofmarinassatisfythecriteriaofentrepreneurship,
whichis importantforeachglobaland
Europeaneconomy.Thepurposeofthisresearchisexplanationofthepossibilitiesfordevelopmentofmarinas
andtheirimmediateanddistantdestinationwhichsupportsthedevelopmentofthelocaleconomy.
The scientific and research achievements were applied and, for the purpose of transparency, a
case study
showingseveralmarinasandtheexamplesoftwobasicmodelsofdevelopmentarepresented.
Structurally,this research consistsof twoparts, namely (1)a theoretical part,where adefinition of nautical
tourismanditsclassificationarepresentedand(2)thedevelopmentofspecificindicatorsofmarinasinEurope
areexplored.
http://www.transnav.eu
the International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 7
Number 3
September 2013
DOI:10.12716/1001.07.03.19
462
marina development and their effects on the
developmentofadestination.
Inthispaper,thebasichypothesisisthatamarina,
whenitappearsinalocality,contributessignificantly
tothe developmentofadestination.Howmuchthis
hypothesisiscorrectandhowitisconfirmedinterms
ofthe
developmentofaphenomenon,thisisataskof
theresearch.
European maxi marine market should be viewed
throughthefiveEuropeanmarkets.Regardlessofthe
specificsofeachofthem,thedevelopmentiscarried
out extensively and as two global development
models.Theanalysisofthesedevelopmentmodelsof
marinas in Europe has not been examined to a
satisfying degree, but exceptional results emphasize
theneedforitsfurtherresearch.Therefore,thesubject
ofthisresearchisaphenomenonofthedevelopment
of marinas in all markets of Europe and two basic
modelsaccordingtowhichthedevelopmentoccurs.
This
paper consists of two main parts. The first
relates to the theoretical research, a definition and
positioning of nautical tourism and marinas in the
European economies and markets. The second part
coversthespecificandpracticalexplanationsandthe
analyses,comparisonsandcasestudies.
2 NAUTICALTOURISMANDITSBASIC
INDUSTRIES
2.1 Definingofnauticaltourism
Nautical tourism, as a phenomenon, is an aspect of
tourismingeneral,fromwhichithasdevelopedasa
subtype. The question of defining nautical tourism
shouldthusbeconsideredinthecontextofageneral
definitionoftourism.Etymologically,nauticaltourism
isacombination
oftwonotions,nauticalandtourism.
This also means that nautical tourism carries two
aspects: (1) tourist aspect, which is the economic
dominant and (2) marine aspect, which refers to
navigation,butnotonlybysea butalsorivers,lakes
andchannels.
Itisnecessarytocreateadefinition
thatsuitsbest
thescientificandpracticalneedsoftheresearchand
workintheindustryofnauticaltourism.
In the literature, marine tourism and nautical
tourism is defined variously. “Each expert form
differentsectorsofeconomy:geographers,expertson
spatial planning and environmental protection,
specialistsinmarketing,marineeconomy
ortourism
industry present other approach.
Each author takes
into account these aspects that are important for
him/her on the field of his/her interest. Differences
can also be detected, as far as understanding of a
phenomenon of tourism in different countries is
concerned. This is due to the fact of a geographical
location and level of the
development of tourism
marketandalsoawarenessthatthecoastallocationof
a country play s in the economic development.”
(Kizielewicz, 2012). For example according to M.
Orams “marine tourism includes those recreational
activities that involve travel away from one’s place of
residenceandwhichhaveastheirhostorfocus
themarine
environment(wherethemarineenvironmentisdefined as
thosewaters aresalineandtideaffected).”[Orams,1999].
InAddition,M.LekakouiE.Tannatosconsiderthat
”maritime tourism refers to a particular form of tourism,
and is the search of a more direct and more permanent
contact of the
tourist with the ocean.” [Lekakou &
Tannatos,2001].Ontheotherhand,MexicoMinistry
of Tourism says that defining the term nautical
tourism,itisimportanttorealizethatatourismactivityis
not isolated or specific but a conglomerate of many
branches of a particular type of activity
of public
administrations,infrastructureandgeneralcomplementary
services.Nauticaltourismmustthereforebeconsideredasa
tourist product, related with entertainment activities in
contactwithbodiesofwater,wheremanydifferentnautical
activitiescantakeplace,alwayswith anecologicaloutlook
and respect for nature” (Mexico Ministry of Tourism,
www.nauticaltourism.com.au,
2012).
According to the definition of tourism, given by
theW. HunzikerandK.Karpf,itispossibletooffer
thefollowing definition: “Nautical tourism is a sum of
polyfunctional activities and relations that are caused by
the touristsboatersʹ stay within or out of the ports of
nauticaltourismand
bytheuseofvesselsorotherobjects
relatedtothenauticalandtouristactivities,forthepurpose
of recreation, sports, entertainment or other
needs”.(Luković & Gržetić, 2007). This definition has
elements of a real, conceptual and nominal definition,
sinceitclarifiestheessenceofthings,determinesthe
content,
and explains the meaning. However, it
shouldbenotedthattourismandnauticaltourismare
derived concepts that represent a range of activities
susceptible to change. That is why we say that
nautical tourism is a multidisciplinary activity that
cannotbeunequivocallyspecified.
In the interests of simplicity and for
a practical
usage of a term, a shorter version of a definition is
suggested: Nautical tourism is a polyfunctional tourist
activitywithastrongmarinecomponent.(Luković,2006).
This simple and practical definition highlights the
maincharacteristicsofnauticaltourismthatplacesit
inthetouristindustry.
2.2
Coreindustriesofnauticaltourism
Consideringtheabovementionedbasic definitionof
nauticaltourism,whichstatesthatnauticaltourismisa
polyfunctional tourist activity with a strong marine
component, itsclassificationshouldbeobserved from
the scientific and practical aspect. Such a form of
analysis and classification is widely used
and all
important studies, such as in Germany (Luković &
Gržetić, 2007)
16
and England (Luković, 2009)
17
, have
applied it. Since this study is linked to such wider
research, the most appropriate classification of
nautical tourism is proposed (see Table 1). This
classification of nautical tourism, which emphasises
its three basic types: (1) marinas, (2)charter and (3)
cruising,isjustifiedbythespecificcharacteristicsand
distinguishing
featuresoftheseindustries.

16
See:BonnInstitutestudy:“GrundlagenuntersuchungWasser
tourismusinDeutschland;IstZustandundEntwicklungsmöglich
keit”dwif/BTE2002.,.
17
See:WelshEnterpriseInstituteUniversityofGlamorganBusiness
School:“AStudyThatAppliestheVoEFrameworktotheMarine
andCoastEnvironmentofWales”,2006,
463
Table1.Classificationofnauticaltourism
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Nauticaltourismindustry
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
SecondaryMainactivitiesAdditional
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
DivingHarboursfor CharterCruising
Surfingnauticaltourism
____________________________________________________________________________________
Rafting‐Berths‐Motoryachts Cruisers:Cruiserharbours:‐Shipbuildingof
Divingbells Moorings1.Withskipper a)Largeworld a)Largecruisermegayachts
‐Rowing‐Drymarinas2.Bareboatcruisersharbours‐Shipbuildingof
‐Fishing‐Marinas:‐Sailingyachts b)Localcruisers‐Specializedports, smallsailing
vessels
‐Adventurous 2.Category
1.Withskipper (traditional)membersof‐Productionof
“Robinson” 3.Category2.Bareboat‐Oneday„MedCruise“equipmentfor
Tourism 4.Categorycruising‐Nonspecialized nauticaltourism
‐Lighthouse 5.Category‐Severaldays ports‐Skipperservices
tourismcruising b)Portsforlocal ‐Informationservices
‐Etctraditionalcraft:
‐Sailingschools
‐Coastalportsused Researchinstitutes
bysmallandeducational
settlementscentres
‐Islandports‐Otherservices
____________________________________________________________________________________
SUBJECTOFTHESTUDY
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Source:T.Luković
“The classifications and definition of forms of
tourismandleisure,pointouttotheinterdisciplinary
natureoftourism.Plentyofitemsinfluenceuponthe
quality and diversity of tourist activities, resulting
notonlyfromtourists’preferenceswhotravelatsea,
but also depended on the external factors, among
whichwe
shouldmention:geographicalandclimatic
conditions, status of development of the technical
andtouristi nfrastructureandalsopolicyoflocaland
centralauthorities”.(Kizielewicz,2012).
3 MARINAINDUSTRYANDEUROPEAN
MARKETS
3.1 BasicfeaturesoftheMarineIndustryinEurope
With the exception of a small number of highly
developed countries,
such as the Netherlands,
Norway and England, the marine industry has the
highest percentage of three of nautical tourism
industry. The term marine industry” is broader
conceptthanamarina,butitisthisoutsidetheMarine
Corpsʹ segment isstrongly developed inthe Baltic,
aswellas
someothereconomiesinEurope.
Marinasarethemostimportantportsof nautical
tourism and their general features are worth
exploring.Itishardtogivespecificdataonthesize,
types and capacities of marinas in Europe because
there is no professional association or institution
that would collect, process,
research and unify the
dataandencouragethedevelopmentoftheindustry.
Nevertheless, we can estimate that there are about
4,400
18
saltwatermarinasinEurope,ofwhichmore
than 1,600 (ADAC, 2010) are of high quality with
morethan400,000(ADAC,2010)berthsthatmeetthe
highest standards. Taking into account about 600
freshwatermarinas,andthosebelongingtomarkets
forwhichthereisnodata,itis estimated
thatthere

18
www.portbooker.org
are over 5,000 commercial marinas with more than
500,000berthsinEurope.About1,000sportmarinas
and marinas in the Black Sea, still insufficiently
researched,shouldbeaddedtothisissueandthen
we come to around 6,000 European marinas.
Estimatesofthemarinascapitalamountto60billion
euros, taking
everything into account, from the
berthsthemselves
19
tothesupportingfacilities.
3.2 PrimaryEuropeanmarinamarkets
Marinas, in terms of ports to accept yachts, widely
distributedintheEuropeanmarket.Consideringthe
specificityoftheEuropeantourismmarket,amarina
isnecessarytoanalyzethefiveEuropeanmarkets:
1 TheMediterranean(Europeanpart)
2 West Europe/Transatlantic (below
the Arctic
Circle)
3 The Baltic and the countries around the Arctic
Circle
4 ContinentalpartofEurope(freshwaters)
5 BlackSea.
When considering five European markets, it can
be concluded that each market has its specific
features and that the main characteristics of
European nautical markets are conformed to
economic
andnaturalconditionsoftheenvironment.
Nowadays, each sector of industry is depended on
political conditions and it concerns the tourist
industry as well. The tourism development is
stronglydependedontheconditionofdevelopment
oftheotherfieldsofeconomyinthecountry.
Thisisthemostimportantfactor,
firstofall,atthe
seaside, where theconditions of portinfrastructure,
itssurroundingandaccessibilityarethemainfactors
foreconomicdevelopment.(Kizielewicz,2005)

19
Thevalueofanunfinishedinvestmentperberthisabout20,000
euros,butthereareadditionalinvestmentsworthfivetoseven
timesmorethantheberthitself.
464
Table2.QualitymarinasonthefiveEuropeanmarkets(withnotBlackSeamarket)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
MarinasandBerths TheMediterranean WestEurope/Transatlantic TheBalticandthe Continentalpart TOTAL
(Europeanpart) (belowtheArcticCircle) countriesaround ofEurope
EUROPE
theArcticCircle (freshwaters)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
010059102105465731
10150023623792101666
5011000787552160
1001200024201247
2001500032‐‐5
>500110‐‐1
Berthtotal171,158153,89633,06044,739402,853
Numberof
marinas 4014362035701,610
Averagenumberof 426.83352.97162.8678.49250.22
berthspermarina
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Source:ADAC,„Marinaführer,Deutschland,Europa“,2010
According to the number of marinas, European
continental market, with its river, lake and canal
marinas,istheleadingmarketandcomprise35.4%of
all quality marinas in Europe. According to the
number of berths, the Mediterranean market is the
leading market, with 42.5% of quality berths,
followed by western European
and transatlantic
marinas,with27.1%ofEuropeanqualitymarinasand
38.2% berths. Mediterranean marinas are the largest
insize,withanaverageof426.83berthsperamarina.
The Baltic Sea market is relatively smaller and its
climateisnotsuitableforasignificantdevelopmentof
marinas.Itis,therefore,
moreorientedtowardscruise
industry and to the development of supporting
industries of nautical tourism such as: yacht
construction, production of quality pontoons and
other ancillary equipment industry. The Black Sea
and eastern European markets are still developing
andtheirstatesandeconomiesareintransition.That
is the reason why
that fifth market has not been
surveyedforthepurposeofthesepapers,butwillbe
achallengeforfuturestudies.
As we can see, by this research can be
enlightening/eliminate even one of our prejudice,
because conventional wisdom is that the
Mediterranean is the strongest European market of
nautical
tourism, including the marina. But not!
Relativelysurprisingthat,accordingtothenumberof
quality marina, strongest market is Continental
European market (freshwaters), after which the
marketisWestEurope/Transatlantic(belowtheArctic
Circle) and only then comes the Mediterranean. By
the number of berths Mediterranean Market has the
mostberths
foryachtsanditsmarinesareonaverage
withthehighestnumberofberths.
4 DEVELOPMENTALEFFECTSOFEUROPEAN
MARINAS,TWOBASICMODELS
4.1 Modelsofdevelopmentofthegrowthofnautical
tourismanditsroleintheeconomyofEurope
Ifweanalysethesystemofeconomicdevelopmentsof
the European developed countries, and especially
Germany,itisevidentthatdevelopmentisbasedona
wellorganized local and regional government.
Accordingtothisevolutionarymodelofdevelopment
plans and their implementation raises the local
government because they knows the needs and
possibilities of developing at the local economy and
peopleʹsinterests.
In contrast to this, the European model is
dominated by local governments in the countries in
transition and it is still expected the state to adopt
strategic documents modelled on the last system.
There is one of the fundamental factors of
developmentinefficiencieseconomiesintransition.
“Marine
resourcesareatypeofnaturalcapitalthat
can be invested or used to generate a return to its
owner”[Clark&Munro,1994].“Twomainquestions
arise surrounding a marine resource investment
decision:(1)who owns marineresources? and (2) in
whatwayscanmarineresourcesbeinvested?Forthe
most part, marine resources are common property,
whereby no one stakeholder has exclusive rights to
theresource or itsservices. In theabsence ofclearly
definedpropertyrights,commonpoolproblemsarise
as individuals competitively exploit the resource
beyonditseconomically and biologicallysustainable
yield. As a result, there is
a “rationale for
governments to intervene as an advocate of proper
managementofenvironmental resources.”(Hanley&
Shogren&White,1997).
Thesuggestionsregardingtheprioritiesofnautical
tourism development, submitted by the government
andtheregional authorities,mustbeconsulted with
the representatives of various environments: social,
economic and political.
It is worth to point out that
tourismdevelopmentplanningoftheseasideregions
requirescarefulcooperationandcoordinationofboth
the tourism and marine sectors, and the public and
privatesectors.
(Kizielewicz,2005).
4.2 Twobasicmodelsofdevelopment/theimpactof
Europeanmarinas
The development of nautical tourism in Europe
confirmsandpromotesEuropeandevelopmentmodel
thatcanmeetallthetouristmarketsofEurope.
Thequestionis:Howdoesthedevelopmentofnautical
tourism affect an economic growth in the
European
economiccircumstances?Inpractice,therearetwobasic
models of development, that have been recorded,
studiedandquantifiedintheory: