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1 INTRODUCTION
Following the revision of the Pilotage Act in April
2007inJapan,trainingofnewpilotshasstartedatthe
Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
andothereducationalinstitutions.Atthecoreofthis
training is the ship maneuvering simulator (SMS), a
useful training tool capable of simulating ba
sic ship
maneuvers and special techniques for new trainees.
There are basically two maneuvering methods used
for ship docking. The first method is to enter the
docking area from outside the port and berthing the
vesselatthetargetquaydirectly.Thesecondmethod
involves carrying out a turn in front of the ta
rget
quay, followedbyberthing.Inaprevious study, the
authors suggested an evaluation index that could be
used to determine the efficacy of the training
techniques for the first docking method (Inoue 2010,
2011). In this paper, the authors propose an
evaluationmethodforthecaseofcarryingoutturnin
frontoftheplanningpositionanddocking.
Turning the ship is t
ypically done in front of the
berthasaresultoftheplannedmaneuveringandcan
be done by the ship itself, in cooperation with
tugboats or by use of anchors. For the present
evaluation, the aut
hors prepared a docking scenario
involvingalargepurecarcarrier(PCC).Thedifficulty
in allowing for wind arises from the variable effect
that wind can have on the highside ships such as
largePCC’s,rollon/rolloff (“RoRo”)cargoshipsand
containerships.
Theexperiencedpilotrecognizesthemeasurement
informat
ion of many inputs, including ship speed,
course deviation, and wind velocity, and steers the
vessel while operating thrust controls such as the
main engine and the rudder and monitoring the
assistance of tugboats, all at the same time. This is
possiblebecause theskilled pilothaslearnedhowto
Fundamental Study of Evaluation at Berthing
Training for Pilot Trainees Using a Ship Maneuvering
Simulator
K.Inoue&T.Okazaki
TokyoUniversityofMarineScienceandTechnologyFacultyofMarineTechnology,Tokyo,Japan
K.Murai&Y.Hayashi
KobeUniversity,Hyogo,Japan
ABSTRACT: Use of the ship maneuvering simulator (SMS) is at the core of pilot trainees education and
training, so it is desirable to have an evaluation method that can be completed shortly after each berthing
training session. There are basically two methods of docking maneuvering that pilot trainees learn: one in
whichtheshipentersfromoutsidetheportandisbertheddirectlyattheta
rgetquay,andasecondmethodin
which the vessel carries out a turn in front of the target quay before berthing. The authors suggested an
evaluation indexinapreviousstudy concerning the first docking method. In the present study, the aut
hors
proposeanevaluationmethodforthecaseofberthingthevesselusingtheturningmaneuver.Sincetheindex
obtainedbythismethodoffersasinglenumericalbenchmark,itisaneasy–tounderstandresultofthetraining
exercise.TheauthorscarriedoutexperimentsusingaSMSandconfirmedtha
ttheproposedevaluationmethod
iseffectiveandhelpfultoimprovetheeffectivenessofSMStraining.
http://www.transnav.eu
the International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 7
Number 1
March 2013
DOI:10.12716/1001.07.01.18