International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 4
Number 3
September 2010
The stakeholders’ satisfaction is considered as the
critical investigation of the experiences and views of
sets of people who have vested interests in the prod-
ucts and services delivered by an organization
(Brooks, Milne, and Johansson, 2002). Furthermore,
it was asserted that stakeholder research provides
one important set of measures of organizational per-
formance. It encompasses the experiences and per-
ceptions of groups of people who have vested inter-
ests in the services delivered by the organization
customers, employees, strategic partners, and spe-
cial-interest groups. ‘Stakeholder satisfaction’ is of-
ten used to represent the views of these groups, and
a common approach to its measurement is to focus
on the concept of ‘satisfaction’ either as an exoge-
nous variable or as a construct based on various at-
tributes of satisfaction. It is in this premise that
stakeholders’ satisfaction was considered as one of
the processes of assessing/feedbacking regarding the
extent of skills and competencies demonstrated by
the marine engineering cadets of Maritime Universi-
ty (JBLFMU-Molo, Iloilo City), Philippines. Hence,
this research was conducted.
This investigation aimed to determine the level of
satisfaction among stakeholders- - crew managers,
personnel managers, training directors based in the
different places of Manila, Philippines.
Specifically, the following questions were ad-
1 What is the stakeholders’ level of satisfaction of
the performance of marine engineering cadets
employed in the different shipping companies in
terms of the following areas:
a) communication,
b) professionalism and trustworthiness,
Stakeholder Satisfaction: Research Evaluation
of Marine Engineering Cadets’ Performance at
Maritime University, Philippines
R.A. Alimen, M. Gayo Jr. & V.B. Jaleco
John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University-Molo, Iloilo City, Philippines
ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the level of stakeholder satisfaction and gather qualita-
tive views and ideas among twenty five (25) company partners - - crew managers, personnel managers, train-
ing directors of the different shipping companies based in Manila, Philippines. These company-partners are
directly involved in the evaluation of performance of marine engineering cadets, specifically of the Marine
Engineering Department, John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University-Molo, Iloilo City. The Perfor-
mance Prism (PP) Theory was used in this study as theoretical framework to measure stakeholder satisfaction
of different company partners. This is an innovative performance measurement and performance management
framework of the second generation. Employing quantitative-qualitative method of analyzing the obtained
data, the study entailed three phases, namely: (1) survey personally administered by the researchers, (2) the
personal interview with the stakeholders, and (3) analysis of the results of the survey using descriptive statis-
tical methods such as the mean, frequency count, and percentage. The information gathered through the inter-
views was used to validate the results by quantitative data analysis. The data-gathering instrument was the
“Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey.” Quantitative results revealed that the stakeholder satisfaction level was
“moderately high” among marine engineering cadets in terms of communication, professionalism and trust-
worthiness, communication, discipline, loyalty, consistency of performance, leadership skills, honesty, indus-
try, social responsibility, and initiative to be satisfactory. The different comments, remarks, suggestions, and
responses derived from the interviews were used also in the study as qualitative data to enhance and validate
the quantitative data. Furthermore, the qualitative views of the respondents were used to suggest some im-
provements and innovations in the learning process at Marine Engineering Department of Maritime Universi-
ty (JBLFMU-Molo, Iloilo City), Philippines.
c) discipline,
d) loyalty,
e) consistency of performance,
f) leadership skills,
g) honesty,
h) industry,
i) social responsibility,
j) initiative?
2 What suggestions do stakeholders have for per-
formance improvements?
The present investigation was anchored on the theo-
ry entitled Stakeholder in the Evaluation of Organi-
zational Performance (Chennell, 2000; Bayle, 2001;
Brooks, Milne, and Johansson, 2002). It was further
anchored on the theory known as the Performance
Prism (PP). Cranfield University originated the utili-
zation of the Performance Prism (PP) as an innova-
tive performance measurement and performance
management framework of the second generation
prism.html). As such, reciprocity is practiced by this
strategy. In addition, this theoretical framework has
five important facets: stakeholder satisfaction,
stakeholder contribution, strategies, processes, and
capabilities. It must be noted that these five facets
are interlinked but may be distinct. Figure 1 below is
the “Performance Prism” (PP).
Figure 1. The performance prism (Cranfield University,
Figure 2. The expanded performance prism (Cranfield Univer-
Moreover, the underlying theoretical framework
of the workability of the Performance Prism (PP) is
the belief that for organizations aspiring to be suc-
cessful in the long term must have a clear picture of
who their stakeholders are and what they want
(Brooks, Milne, and Johansson, 2002; Fletcher,
Guthrie, Steane, Roos, and Pike, 2003). Consider the
expanded model of the Performance Prism in Figure
2. This figure was used leading to the design of con-
ceptual framework of this study.
Figure 2 clearly indicates in essence the interrela-
tionships among the facets in the Performance Prism
(PP). The proponents of this framework suggest that
for a performance to possess quality, the process
should start not from the strategies but from the
stakeholders and basically on what they want.
In a similar manner, the theoretical framework of
the Performance Prism (PP) has found its way on
how this study has been conceptualized. Figure 3
shows the conceptual framework for this present in-
vestigation. The research framework was modified
from the Figure 1 Performance Prism (PP) and Fig-
ure 2 (The Expanded Performance Prism) as deemed
by the researchers with three phases.
Stakeholder Satisfaction
The Five Facets of the Performance Prism
Figure 3. The conceptual framework of the present study.
The conceptual framework shows the different
phases involved in order to determine stakeholder
satisfaction. The different phases are further ex-
plained in the methodology.
This study employed the quantitative-qualitative
method of analysing the obtained data from the dif-
ferent company-partners of JBLFMU. The three (3)
phases were the following:
1 survey personally administered by the research-
ers, the stakeholders were asked to rate the level
of satisfaction using the scales of one to ten on
required competencies exhibited by the marine
engineering cadets.
2 personal interviews with the stakeholders (crew
and personnel managers, training officers, and
HRD heads of different company-partners) were
conducted, the researchers believed that through
the interviews, several suggestions were generat-
ed leading to the data that needed in establishing
stakeholder satisfaction. In this regard the inter-
view was utilised as one of the qualitative meth-
ods to further explain the stakeholders’ satisfac-
tion and suggestions. Interviews are “highly
appropriate in studying process because depicting
process requires detailed description” (Patton,
3 analysing the results of the survey using descrip-
tive statistical method such as mean, frequency
count, and percentage. The mean, frequency, and
percentage were used to determine the level of
stakeholders’ satisfaction and grouping of each
category. The information gathered through the
interviews was used to validate the results of
quantitative data.
The data-gathering instrument in this research was
the “Stakeholder Satisfaction Survey” which con-
sisted of the following areas of competencies:
a) communication,
b) professionalism and trustworthiness,
c) discipline,
d) loyalty,
e) consistency of performance,
f) leadership skills,
g) honesty,
h) industry,
i) social responsibility,
j) initiative.
These areas were applied to the different levels
of seafarers such as: engine ratings (electricians, fit-
ters, oilers, and wipers) and engine cadets. The data-
gathering instrument had rating scales of 1 to 10,
which were arranged in ascending manner by the re-
searchers. This data-gathering instrument was
adopted from the “Stakeholders’ Satisfaction Survey
Scale” used by the Research Department of
JBLFMU-Molo, Iloilo City, Philippines. The in-
strument was modified by the researchers for the
purpose of this study, pilot-tested, and validated by
the Members of Research Committee of Marine En-
gineering Department who were expert in maritime
education, research, instrumentation, psychology,
and statistics.
The following were the scales and descriptions of
the data-gathering instrument used in this study:
Scale Description
8.21-10.0 High
6.41-8.20 Moderately High
4.61-6.40 Neutral
2.81-4.60 Moderately Low
1.00-2.80 Low
The research team determined the level of stake-
holder satisfaction. Upon the approval of the admin-
istrator of JBLFMU-Molo, Iloilo City, Philippines,
the members of the team administered the validated
instruments to the respondents of the different ship-
ping companies at Manila, Philippines last summer
of 2008. The researchers stayed in Manila during the
Phase 3
Phase 2
Phase 1
distribution and gathering of data. The different
places of Manila, Philippines that the researchers
identified that had the shipping companies were:
1 Taft Avenue, Malate, Manila,
2 Ermita Center, Manila,
3 Roxas Boulevard, Malate, Manila,
4 U.N. Avenue, Ermita, Manila, and
5 Makati City, Metro Manila
These were the venues where these companies
situated. The researchers collected the necessary da-
ta with the use of the instrument “Stakeholder Satis-
faction Survey.” The qualitative data were gathered
using interview process through open-ended ques-
The researchers went to the different shipping
companies and requested the crew managers, per-
sonnel managers, training directors, and training of-
ficers to determine the level of stakeholder satisfac-
tion by encircling the appropriate scales reflected in
the data-gathering instruments. The respondents also
listed down the comments and suggestions necessary
to improve the education and training of the students
while at the university as suggested by Kaplan and
Norton (1996). These respondents were subjected al-
so to interviews to gather the qualitative data needed
for this study (Patton, 1990; Savage, Nix, White-
head, and Blair, 1991). After collecting, retrieving,
and gathering the accomplished data-gathering in-
struments, the researchers used appropriate statisti-
cal tools to analyze the quantitative data, while the
qualitative data were separated and analyzed by de-
termining the common thoughts, ideas, and com-
ments of the respondents towards the goals of stake-
holder satisfaction (Mitchell, angle, and Wood,
1997). The ideas, comments, and suggestions of the
respondents were grouped and presented in tables as
shown in the results’ section of this study.
The respondents of this study were Greek, Japanese,
Norwegian, Singaporean, Italian, German, and
American. There were 25 respondents interviewed
for this study. The distribution of the respondents
was 1 president, 4 general managers, 2 directors, 1
deputy general manager, 1 junior executive assistant,
1 OIC, 7 crewing/manning managers, 1 administra-
tive officer, 3 training managers/officers, 1 operation
manager, 2 recruitment managers/officers, 1 cadet
program manager.
The results of this study were presented into two
sections. The first section dealt with the level of
stakeholder satisfaction and the next section dis-
cussed the suggestions given by the stakeholders in
order to improve the performance of marine engi-
neering cadets in terms of knowledge, skills, and at-
titudes (KSA).
The results of stakeholder satisfaction were
‘moderately high’ on the performance output of the
marine engineering cadets when classified according
to different areas. The interpretation and data analy-
sis are based on the scales and descriptions of this
study which previously discussed from the data-
gathering instrument section. The following are the
results of the study:
a) communication skills was “moderately high”
with the mean score of 7.1,
b) trustworthiness was “moderately high” with the
mean score of 7.1,
c) discipline was “moderately high” with the mean
score of 7.2,
d) loyalty was “moderately high” with mean score
of 7.3,
e) consistency of performance was “moderately
high” with mean score of 7.0 ,
f) leadership skills was “moderately high” with the
mean score of 7.0,
g) honesty was “moderately high” with mean score
of 7.2,
h) industry was “moderately high” with mean score
of 7.3,
i) social responsibility was “moderately high” with
mean score of 7.1, and
j) initiative was finally “moderately high” with the
mean score of 7.1.
Based on the different areas of competencies, the
stakeholders indicated that the graduates employed
in their companies performed to their satisfaction.
The results employed the scale levels of 1.0 to 11.0
with the descriptions ranging from ‘low’ to ‘high,’
the stakeholder satisfaction level is “moderately
The “moderately high” level of stakeholder satis-
faction indicates the quality of training impacted
from the educational institution. The results also
imply the realization of the thrust of the University
to provide competent and qualified graduates to the
global maritime world. Undoubtedly, the University
should also consider the availability of alternates or
substitutes from other countries like China, India,
and Pakistan in case the shipping/manning compa-
nies are not well satisfied with the performance of
the graduates. The University needs to monitor their
competitiveness in order to further improve the
stakeholders’ level of satisfaction as well as to re-
main competitive as a major supplier of seafarers in
the global maritime market. Interview results were
processed and the “moderately high” level of satis-
faction was further reinforced by the statements de-
rived from it. Based on the responses derived from
the interview questions, the stakeholders’ view the
cadets’ performance of Marine Engineering Depart-
ment of JBLFMU-Molo, Iloilo City, Philippines was
perceived to be satisfactory. Table 1 includes the re-
sponses to the interview questions. Note that the re-
sponses were edited for the purpose of this study.
Table 1. Answers to the Interview Questions with Reference to
Stakeholder Satisfaction
“JBLFMU-Molo Graduates as I personally observed and as
what people have said -- have strong determination, hard work-
ing, never surrender for whatever difficulties they were facing
“They know how to deal and can easily adopt with the attitude
of their shipmate or even of foreign nationalities.”
“We, at the manning agency appreciate their good perfor-
mance, they exert more effort in order to survive, and they
show that they are capable of the work given to them.
JBLFMU-Molo Graduates, Mabuhay.”
“Keep up the good work, we are looking forward to visiting
JBLFMU-Molo in the future.”
“Lastly we are glad to hear about the unstoppable and continu-
ous development in terms of education/trainings as well as the
high quality of faculty and staff. We are also exerting our effort
to promote JBLFMU-Molo to become well known around the
“The education and training of JBLFMU-Molo graduates who
are employed in our company are outstanding, they have the
necessary knowledge and skills needed, especially the fresh
graduates. They are disciplined, which reflect the kind of train-
ing they received in school. We even employ JBLFMU-Molo
graduates who are walk-in applicants in our Manpower Devel-
opment and Cadetship Programs.”
“We trust the educational system of JBLFMU-Molo.”
“The graduates of JBLFMU-Molo are competent to do the
tasks that have been given to them.”
“The education and training of JBLFMU-Molo graduates are to
be proud of, we are very satisfied with their performance.”
“Put to the mind of your men, that education is their wealth.
Above all, always praise God.”
“More power to the foundation you created”
“Keep up the good work”
“Because had worked for 7 years in Ancora Company, I have
met many engineers and cadets. I have to say that the majority
of them are satisfactory. They have good characters, willing-
ness to work with others, and hard workers.
Never have a problem with some of them. The cadets that I
have met are clever, good educated, and willing to do the work
assigned to them.”
“JBLFMU graduate has good character, hard worker, willing to
Based on the responses to the second problem
posed by this investigation, “what suggestions do
stakeholders have for performance improvements?”
Three common suggestions/recommendations
emerged: there is a need to enhance the three areas:
Value formation, general education courses like
Math and English, and Skills and Trainings. Figure 4
shows the results.
Figure 4. Stakeholder’s suggestions for performance improve-
This figure shows the three areas that have to be
looked into by the institution. From the responses,
Skills and Trainings ranked first priority with 43%
of the total responses; Value formation ranked se-
cond with 36 % of the total responses, and General
Education subjects with 21 % of the total responses.
University has to reconsider certain measures and re-
forms to improve these areas.
The Table 2 reflects the different answers of the
marine engineering cadets during the interviews
conducted by the researchers. These were presented
in this study as qualitative data and used to enhance
the quantitative results of this study.
Table 2. Answers to the interview questions with reference to
stakeholder suggestions on the institution’s performance im-
“The graduates ‘ loyalty is observed to be a declining
trend. Some have a demanding attitude problem.”
“The attitude is not showing respect, (walang po at opo).”
“Although we believe that JBLFMU-Molo strives to give
excellent education and training to their graduates, still there
are some areas which need concern. Obviously, on top is their
poor knowledge in Math. Lately we have been hearing of poor
discipline among cadets. There were complaints of arrogance
while onboard and even when dealing with office staff during
vacation while reporting to the office: Thus, these graduates
(1) need to improve on their discipline, (2) ensure clear under-
standing of the principle of internal combustion engine,
(3)improve their mathematics, (4)teach and give exercises on
training actual ships piping diagram and electrical schematic
diagram, and (5)ensure their clear understanding of theory and
principle of separation of fluids.”
“Graduates need to study hard and have patience.”
“Give all responsibilities to all graduates of JBLFMU-Molo
for giving taking licensure exam”
“I have nothing to suggest only some of them need more
experience. “Mathematics difficulty needs to be addressed.”
“English difficulty must be looked into.”
Skills and
The present study also discovered that, despite
stakeholders’ satisfaction of the JBLFMU graduates’
performance on board, they have advanced some
comments, remarks, suggestions, and recommenda-
tions on the kind of training that the Marine Engi-
neering Department, JBLFMU-Molo, Iloilo City,
Philippines has for the students with special empha-
sis on the improvement of value formation, en-
hancement of general education courses, as well as
skills and trainings. Note that the interviewees’ re-
sponses were edited for the purpose of this research
but the contexts of the responses were retained.
The study yielded a favorable level of stakeholder
satisfaction of educational performance, although, a
more careful look at the sugges-
tions/recommendations from the stakeholders reveal
an equally difficult challenge to the institution that
has gained a good reputation in the field of seafaring
industry. The maritime university has to look into
the curriculum and review offerings that turn out
better results as far as content and allied courses are
concerned. This way, stakeholders’ suggestions can
be addressed. Research design like this one must be
continuously done to elicit issues and queries about
an educational performance and thus feed backs can
be taken as challenges for more improved educa-
tional and institutional reforms. Direct and specific
feedback scheme may be done to stimulate adminis-
trators and other stakeholders concerned to act, ad-
dress lapses, and definitely improve institutional
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