Contemporary conditions and opportunities related
with the development of logistics system are in the
middle of a complex socio-economic functional space.
Activities in the field of space management are
focused on the implementation of principles of
sustainable development. We are currently observing
the moment when the implemented systems are
aimed to create more economic, ecological and
socially acceptable solutions. There are few milestones
within the technology development which are
defining the future shape for logistics. The research in
the field of autonomous ships[21] [26] is changing the
way people think about sea transportation. Another
element announcing these changes is the energy issue.
The continuous development of propulsion systems
and renewable energy sources like offshore wind
farms [27] allows to make the claim that operability of
intermodal transport can be zero-energy. This is a part
of the dynamic development of technologies that
allow to control processes in real time, such as for
example construction system sensors [19] or safety
systems [9].
The development of a dynamic logistic structure
creates the need for development and modernization
of stationary facilities that are located in places of high
transport intensity. Port centres currently in use are
developing in line with economic trends [17] towards
modern technologies. As logistic nodes, they become
important elements of the city structure and affect its
daily functioning, therefore the multi-criterial
improvement of these facilities is an important factor.
The exchange of goods within the city and beyond
should be organized in an optimal way so as to
reduce the consumption of urban resources, which
enable further spatial development. Also subordinate
operation of global logistics to mass transport for
basic goods.
Interference between Land and Sea Logistics Systems.
Multifunctional Building System Design Towards
Autonomous Integrated Transport Infrastructure
M. Gerigk
Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
ABSTRACT: The research is focused on developing design theory towards efficient multifunctional facilities for
logistics supply chains in the contemporary urban city structures. The development of modern systems based
on autonomous transport creates new conditions for their management and generates an emerging need to
define dedicated functional service structures. An important element of consideration also taken into account is
the scenario for large-size unmanned facilities operation in the multifunctional port facility and its connections
to power supply from renewable energy sources. Despite the high degree of complexity, modern transport
solutions should be focused on optimizing the distribution time and trans-shipment time within the intermodal
supply chain as well as provide ecological logistic solutions. Due to the large number of system components,
the study presents a simplified database structure allowing for a comprehensive technological overview within
the entire system.
the International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 16
Number 3
September 2022
DOI: 10.12716/1001.16.03.04
To obtain the best possible model result for the
characteristics of reality based intermodal transport,
an analysis of literature and available technological
resources was first performed.
Main aim is to define the possible future shape for
a multifunctional facility as an integrator of land and
sea transport. The following elements have been
analysed in terms of current opportunities and
development trends:
urban overview;
sea transportation structure;
land transportation structure;
logistics facilities structure;
complementary service support structure.
Compilation and a holistic overview of the global
system is necessary to present a model focused on
priority requirements. The presented study on the
border of architecture and urban planning as well as
civil and maritime engineering and logistics is shaped
in the adopted design manner defined as Co-Design
[16]. Theoretical modelling of a multifunctional
building is based on adjusting the system components
in such a way that they harmonize with each other.
The power of modern technologies to make them
purposeful is also inherent in the design approach to
implement smart ports design features [4]. They rely
on interconnections and automating as a key
management element for smart port logistics.
Actual logistics relay on multiple modes of
transportation. Circulation of passengers and goods
can be provided by air, sea or land. Distribution of
goods is closely related to port cities agglomerations,
where the operations of transferring goods to
intermediaries and end users are carried out. The
large-scale cargo loads are transported on land in a
dispersed form, while on the water surface in a
concentrated form. Supply chains are concentrated
around large urban centres providing services for
various means of transport through various facilities.
Distribution centre (DC) can be defined by its location
and function in the supply chain. There is a need to
create retail network structure models for those types
of systems, because of the beneficial effect of
significant cost savings under real conditions [13].
The world of autonomous objects and their
characteristics is constantly evolving. Currently
existing systems require a high involvement of the
human factor in management. However, the
functional aim is level 5, this is "Full Driving
Automation", where the intervention of the driver is
not required for the entire travel distance. The
presented compendium of current solutions [7] shows
that the integration of transport infrastructure on
many levels, even in the air, based on automation is
inevitable. Let's develop this approach with regard to
reloading of goods, where there is a need to optimize
the current solutions.
3.1 Urban overview
Current trends indicate that logistics centres are the
main components of the supply chain. From an urban
perspective, container terminals grow to
unimaginable sizes. Figure 1 shows a diagram as a
sketch of the relationship between transport logistics
and the urban structure. Container terminal is present
as the interface between the land and the sea
structure. The exchange of goods then passes through
the logistics centre which concentrates local
distribution. Due to the large-scale impact of
infrastructure on port cities, it is possible to reduce its
scale by optimizing the functional and architectural
structure of dedicated facilities. Thus, from an urban
perspective, it is possible to shift the burden of
container landfills to logistic centres, while port units
would be only transfer units.
Figure 1. Functional scheme for intermodal logistics supply
chain in the city ring structure context.
Calculating routes for land transport is extremely
important. Converting distance and time has an effect
on operating costs. The presented example of
transport planning based on technological
possibilities [8] is constantly developing. The
multifactorial structure determining the functioning
of the logistics system in the city has been
demonstrated. With regard to the port city, the key
issue will be mass distribution based on intermodal
3.2 Sea transportation structure
Apart from the legal aspects, the market drive is
focused on implementing intelligent systems as
automated as possible. Investigations towards
procedures of ship manoeuvres [1] shows that
defining standards for present fleet is difficult. It
reveals that the unmanned ships should be designed
and equipped with multi-directional advanced
manoeuvring system.
Perhaps the current trend of creating the largest
possible container ships will change direction. There
are noticeable trends in creating optimal solutions,
such as multi-purpose cargo vessels [15], where the
desire to reduce units size and introducing the
possibility of their various uses is under
consideration. Due to the willingness to use electricity
or hydrogen, a system of smaller units with a shorter
range will be more efficient. However, this would
require an improvement in the reloading of the units