241
1 INTRODUCTION
Teachers need to improve knowledge and skills to
enhance. They should improve and explore their
teaching practices. Teachers’ competencies must be
reviewed so that teachers be redefined in the
development of whole life and education.
Competencies refer to knowledge, skills, attitudes,
values, and beliefs that the people need in order to be
successful in job. These are categories into three (3)
areas such as: field, pedagogical, and cultural
competencies. Competencies referred to the following
competencies: field, research, life-long learning,
social-cultural, emotional, communication,
information and communication technologies (ICT),
and environment (Selvi, 2010).
Teachers have important contribution to determine
students’ achievement. Teachers need to improve
their knowledge and teaching practices. They should
bring their students to the objectives of learning.
Teaching competence is a set of teachers’ abilities,
knowledge, and beliefs that are used to create
effective learning process (Majoko, 2019).
One of the basic functions of the school is to
perform quality performance in the framework of
quality education according to different fields of
specializations. The mission of the school is to ensure
on the one hand, excellent student performance, and
on the other the equal enjoyment of opportunities by
all students. Schools are asked to carry out the
challenges of times, such as multicultural co-existence,
dominance of technology, evolution of sciences, and
rapid renewal of knowledge. They are tasked to
prepare the students not only for the present but also
for ever-changing future, which needs the teachers’
role. The contribution of the working teachers is of
Teaching Situation and Instructors’ Key-Competencies
at the College of Maritime Education (CME): Evaluation
of the Marine Engineering Students
J
.J. Victoriano, R.T. Villaruz & R.A. Alimen
John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University, Iloilo City, Philippines
ABSTRACT: Strength of educational system depends upon the quality pf teachers. Teachers have always been
considered as one of the noblest professions. (Naz, 2016). Students are generally influenced by their teachers
because they spend most of their time at school (Rahaman, 2010; Rosen, 2010). To teach students according to
today’s standards, teachers need to understand subject matter deeply and flexibly so that they can help students
create useful cognitive maps, relate one idea to another, and address misconceptions. Teachers need to see how
ideas connect across fields and to everyday life. Teachers use suitable strategies and resources to follow
instructions according to the needs of the needs of individuals and groups of students. Teachers should guide
pupils learning in analyzing. Teachers should provide manifold models and explanations of concepts behaviors
and skills. Teachers provide creative and critical thinking, problem solving ability, curiosity. They should know
how to use various technological and communication. They should believe in change and flexibility in teaching
learning process (Rahaman, 2010; Rosen, 2010).
http://www.transnav.eu
the
International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 16
Number 2
June 2022
DOI: 10.12716/1001.16.02.06
242
primary importance, as they have the experiences
gained from actual practice to warrant “competence in
teaching”. These competencies are the holistic
approaches, individual qualification, attitudes, skills,
and knowledge that arise as the results of their works.
Teachers shall carry out their works with the union of
personality traits and acquired knowledge. A “good
teacher” should possess a wide range of
qualifications, which include personality traits,
attitudes, beliefs, pedagogical skills, and knowledge.
The professional competencies of the teacher are
personal qualities, attitudes, skills, and knowledge
contribute to his/her effectiveness (Liakopoulou,
2011).
In particular, a large number of Philippine schools
were reported to manifest declining levels of quality,
and thus offering low quality education. In this
regard, public and private institutions were mandated
by CHED (Commission on Higher Education) to align
their development agenda with those articulated by
national educational reforms (Cuizon, el at., 2011).
Learning to teach is a developmental process, one
that changes and evolves throughout a career. Across
this time, teachers make sense of their personal
experiences through interpretation and creation of
unique frameworks of knowledge. The process of
teaching has been defined in a variety of ways as the
acquisition and maintenance of practical teaching
skills in order to address the complexity of issues in
teaching (Greene, 2008).
Teacher’s competency is the ability of teacher to
create an environment that is fair, understanding, and
accepting varied and diverse students, ideas,
experiences, and backgrounds. Teachers who learn
and practice sound pedagogical practices and
techniques can affect students’ measured
achievements and performance, especially those
students who came from different cultures,
backgrounds, and quality of life. The single most
important influence on student’s learning is the
quality of teaching (Tope, 2012).
Equalizing opportunities in education is one of the
most important conditions for overcoming social
injustice and reducing social disparities in any
community. Education is a condition needed for
strengthening economic growth. It is the key to the
building up of skills and capacities in all domains,
which are necessary for techno-economic
development. It is also one way of improving a
country’s citizens so that their whole potentials may
be maximized to benefit the nation. Education must be
concerned with more than simply transmission of
knowledge (Fernandez, 20112).
The comparison of approaches to learning,
teaching, and assessment is the new step toward
making higher education system transparent to its
stakeholders. Academic leaders and administrators of
educational institutions have to develop programs
which are commensurate with new outcomes and
approaches that use to level up learning outcomes.
Assessment practices must be appropriate for
ascertaining whether or not the desired results have
been obtained (Biggs, 2003).
The quality of nation depends upon the quality of
its citizens. The quality of citizens rests upon the
quality of their education. Quality education depends
upon the competence, dedication of school teachers.
The source of true and holistic education is the
teachers. Teacher has always given opportunity to
raise their platform of respect. Teachers are regarded
as the most powerful agents of social change. The
effect of quality teaching on educational outcomes are
greater than those that arise from the students’
background.
2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In order to understand fully the present study, the
following specific questions were advanced:
1. What is the level of teaching situation of the
instructors as an entire group and when grouped
according to different categories such as the
following: (a) type of student, (b) place of origin,
(c) age, (d) area of specialization at the College of
Maritime Education of JBLFMU-Molo as evaluated
by the marine engineering students?
2. What is the level of instructors’ competence as an
entire group and when grouped according to
different categories such as the following: (a) type
of student, (b) place of origin, (c) age, (d) area of
specialization at the College of Maritime Education
of JBLFMU-Molo as evaluated by the marine
engineering students?
3. Are there significant differences in the teaching
situation of the instructors as an entire group and
when grouped according to different categories
such as the following: (a) type of student, (b) place
of origin, (c) age, (d) area of specialization at the
College of Maritime Education of JBLFMU-Molo
as evaluated by the marine engineering students?
4. Are there significant differences in the level of
teaching situation of the instructors as an entire
group and when grouped according to different
categories such as the following: (a) type of
student, (b) place of origin, (c) age, (d) area of
specialization at the College of Maritime Education
of JBLFMU-Molo as evaluated by the marine
engineering students?
5. Is there significant relationship between the
teaching situation and teaching competence of the
instructors?
6. What are the instructors’ key-competencies as
perceived by the marine engineering students?
7. What are the suggestions of the irregular students
about the teaching competence of their instructors
at the College of Maritime Education, JBLFMU-
Molo?
3 HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis was advanced:
There are no significant differences in the level of
teaching competence as evaluated by the respondents
when grouped according to different categories such
as type of residence, number of years as irregular
students, age, and area of specialization of instructors.
243
3.1 Conceptual Framework
The present study was illustrated in the figure below
showing relationship between the dependent variable,
teaching competence as influenced by independent
variables such as type of residence while studying at
JBLFMU-Molo, number of years as irregular student,
age, and area of specialization being evaluated by
irregular students.
Figure 1. Teaching situation and instructors’ competence of
instructors as influenced by the respondent-related factors.
3.2 Definition of Terms
The following terms are conceptually and
operationally defined for clearer understanding.
Assessment ¬ Evaluation or estimation of the
nature, quality, or ability of someone or something
(Biaton, 2017).
In this study, “assessment” refers to the methods
and techniques that is used to measure the quality or
ability of the instructors handling irregular marine
enginnering at JBLFMU-Molo.
Competence the way one carries out his work,
union of his personality traits and acquired
knowledge (Liakopoulou, 2011).
In this study, competence refers to the teaching
competence, which is the way teacher carries out his
work, union of his personality traits, and acquired
knowledge in dealing with irregular marine
engineering students of JBLFMU-Molo.
Marine engineering students are trained to work
at the engine department of a ship (Navarra, 2003)
In this study “students” refers to the irregular
marine engineering students who are enrolled at the
College of Maritime Education (CME) during the first
semester of SY 2018-2019 at JBLFMU- Molo.
Teaching an interpersonal, interactive activity,
typically involving verbal communication, which is
undertaken for the purpose of helping one or more
students learn or change the ways in which they can
or will behave (Porras, 2004).
In this study, “teaching” refers to those actions
involving verbal communication designed to help the
irregular marine engineering students of JBLFMU-
Molo, Iloilo City, Philippines.
3.3 Significance of the Study
This study determined the teaching competence of
instructors handling irregular students at the College
of Maritime Education (CME) at JBLLFMU-Molo,
Iloilo City, Philippines for SY 2018-2019. The results
of this study will be useful to marine engineering
students, parents, department heads and other
researchers.
Marine Engineering Students. This may help them
be particularly aware of the teaching competence of
their instructors at the College of Maritime Education
of JBLFMU-Molo. This study will provide them the
knowledge on how they will be inter-active during
their school-activities with their instructors.
Parents. This may help them know and guide their
children who are taking marine engineering course.
The results will make them realize how important
their support to their children’s education it terms of
financial, moral and spiritual aspects.
Department heads. This study will provide them
further information about the teaching competence of
the instructors in the College of Maritime Education
(CME) of the JBLFMU-Molo. They should continue
giving their full support by conducting classroom
monitoring, teachers’ assessment, and students
tutorial sessions in their department.
Researchers. This study will provide them some
insights towards factors affecting teaching
competences of instructors which lead to the
fulfillment of learning process of the marine
engineering students at JBLFMU-Molo.
3.4 Delimitation of the Study
This study determined the teaching competence of the
instructors handling irregular students at the College
of Maritime Education (CME) of JBLFMU-Molo, Iloilo
City for the School Year 20018-2019.
The respondents of the study were the fifty (50)
irregular marine engineering students who were
presently enrolled at the College of Maritime
Education (CME) of John B. Lacson Foundation
Maritime University-Molo, Iloilo City, Philippines for
this first semester of SY 2018-2019.
Respondents of the study were classified according
to different categories as stated in the questionnaire.
Descriptive statistics employed were frequency count,
percentage, mean, and rank. Inferential statistics
included t-test and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) set
at .05 alpha level.
4 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND
STUDIES
The review of related literature and studies contains
the current knowledge including results of studies
related to teaching competencies. This also includes
the theoretical and methodical contributions to the
same topics mentioned earlier. The ultimate goal of
this chapter is to broaden the readers on current
related literature as well as related studies that may be
conceived as beneficial and relevant on assessment of
teaching competence of instructors at the universities
here in the Philippines and abroad.
244
The study conducted by Sumbang et al. (2004)
mentioned that the students of JBLCF-Molo perceived
the level of teaching performance of instructors in
Marine Engineering as follows: very satisfactory in
terms of knowledge of the subject matter with mean
score of 3.67, teaching skills was very good with mean
score of 3.60; student-instructor interaction was very
good with mean score of 3.81; personal and social
qualities were very good with mean score of 3.83. The
data indicate that those who were teaching in the
College of Maritime Education had “better
performance” leading towards quality in maritime
education.
Another study by Barranco et al. (2003), revealed
that the level of teaching competence of professional
instructors was “high” with the mean score of 4.32, it
was also “high” when the respondents were grouped
according to different categories such as family
income, type of residence, and year level. These
results were due to the fact that the selection and
retention of professional instructors to teach in the
maritime university (JBLCF-Molo) were rigid. They
had been undergoing upgrading and skills
development training to equip themselves to become
better instructors.
Alava, et al. (2003) underscored that the “high
teaching performance” of technical instructors was
due to the fact that most or majority of the instructors
were pursuing post graduate studies in their different
fields of specialization, disciplines, and area of
concentration that would greatly influenced the
results of the learning of the marine engineering
students.
Espaňol, et al. (2003) stressed that the level of
teaching performance of professional instructors was
“moderately high” with mean score of 3.23 was
attributed to the fact that most of the professional
instructors were teaching in their field of expertise,
with adequate sea experience and license marine
officers, which was attributed to the learning of the
marine engineering students at JBLCF-Molo.
The study of Guillergan and Poral (2017) discussed
the level of factors affecting the teaching efficiency of
Senior High School teachers was “moderate” as
exhibited by the bachelor and master’s degree
teachers. Teachers’ views about salary were related to
factors which affect teaching efficiency. The study
mentioned that “low salary” is creating hurdle in their
interest in the teaching profession. Some of the
teachers (47.4 % of the 21 teachers) regarded salaries
and benefits as the main source of their satisfaction.
Forty-two and point one percent (42.1%) of the 21
teachers in the study said that “poor pay” becomes the
cause of mental dissatisfaction, 36.8% of the 21
teachers reacted that Senior High School teachers
were not financially motivated to do their jobs.
Majority of the teachers viewed that “big class size”
increased the stress of teaching, 47.54 % of the 21
teachers in the study believed that “higher teaching
load” and “more subject-preparations” made them
more ineffective. The “topics in the syllabi are
overcrowded” and space in the classrooms limited the
free interaction of teachers and students. According to
this study, classroom condition is not following the
standard set by the government agency.
The study of Liakopoulou (2011) entitled, “The
Professional Competence of Teachers: Which
Qualities, Attitudes, Skills, and Knowledge
Contribute to a Teacher’s Effectiveness,” revealed that
the “holistic approach” to the tools making up the
profile of “good teacher” as most teachers seem to
associate to their effectiveness at work with both
personal traits and “didactic and pedagogical skills”,
as well as the possession of certain type of
pedagogical knowledge. The teachers’ personality
traits are related to the professional role of teachers in
terms of the appearance of students, sense of humor,
sense of fairness, patience, enthusiasm, creativity, care
and interest in students, all of these contributed to the
effectiveness of the teachers. More effective teachers
apply the following: set realistic objectives, try and
give incentives to students for learning, apply various
teaching methods, select participative forms of
teaching, test and create learning materials, present
information in a clear manner, combine words with
pictures, use various teaching aids, maximize teaching
time through systematic measures (planning, reduced
disturbances in the classrooms), assign works that will
stir interest of the students, monitor and evaluate
progress of the students, set evaluation criteria for
students, inform students and provide feedback to the
students. Another decisive factor in effectiveness of
teachers is the teachers’ ability to recognize the
diversity of students, to choose the best method
possible for each student, and to create incentives for
students. The qualities of teachers to ensure teachers’
effectiveness are not the sum of his knowledge, but
rather the link between the different types of
knowledge he possesses; these types of knowledge do
not simply coexist, they should form a complete,
inseparable unit of knowledge, the degree of
connectivity between these separate sets of knowledge
sets apart a “competent teacher” from an “excellent
teacher” as a competent teacher manages to combine
these knowledge forms in part, whereas, an excellent
teacher uses the knowledge deriving from each
separate field most effectively. The findings of this
study contributed to a systematic and analytical
description of the content of professional knowledge
and to an indicative classification of tools required for
the successful performance of teacher’s pedagogical
and didactic work. The foundations for interventions
at educational reform level, include the following: (1)
planning of teacher’s preparation programs: the
recording of teachers’ needs may, to some degree,
ensure that the study programs for initial training are
designed according to the needs of the teachers, as
these are shaped through pedagogical and didactic
works; (2) design of in-service training programs,
taking into consideration teachers’ specific needs.
Findings show that teachers’ needs vary according to
their personal characteristics (years of experience, age,
gender, and specialization) . The findings could be
used for a more effective planning of in-service
training programs on pedagogical matters, based on
the teachers’ diverging needs; (3) criterion of a system
of assessment criteria that the professional
competence of teachers can be evaluated; (4)
configuration of a framework for evaluation, and self-
evaluation of the professional training of teachers.
These data contribute to teachers’ understanding of
themselves, regardless of the context in which they
245
work, because basic qualifications can contribute to
effectiveness of teachers.
In another study conducted by Baumert, Hachfeld,
Kunter, Klusmann, & Voss (2013), it was stressed that
the teacher quality refers to all teacher-related
characteristics that produce favorable educational
outcomes such as student performance on
standardized tests or supervisor ratings. Discussions
about how to improve teacher quality tend to follow
one of two lines of argumentation. The first line
proposes that good teachers show certain stable
cognitive characteristics, making careful recruitment
and selection into the teaching profession, which is
called “Bright Person Hypothesis (BPH). The second
argument is that attention should focus on profession-
specific knowledge acquired during teacher
education, which is called “Knowledge Teacher
Hypothesis (KTH).” The Bright Person Hypothesis
(BPH) explains that “the best teachers are bright, well-
educated people who are smart enough and
thoughtful enough to figure out the nuances of
teaching in the process of doing it.” In other words,
the cognitive capabilities with which people enter the
teaching career are seen as crucial for determining
teacher quality, this argument is based on the idea
that teaching is a highly demanding, complex, and
inherently unpredictable task that requires high
cognitive flexibility and a capacity for quick problem
solving. The BPH is widely endorsed in the public
discussion and among policy makers. Its practical
implications are obvious: if the best teachers are
characterized by their high intelligence, then the focus
needs to be placed on recruiting these individuals into
teaching. It would therefore be necessary to establish
innovative recruitment programs or entrance tests.
Moreover, since the high proportion of teachers leave
the career after a few years, new incentive systems
would need to be enacted to keep high-potential
teachers in profession. A second explanation of
teachers’ success views teaching as a profession whose
members are autonomous practitioners that exercise
knowledge-based skills in non-routine contexts. The
Knowledgeable Teacher Hypothesis (KTH) sees
profession-specific knowledge as a key factor in
teacher success, this type of knowledge is not
everyday knowledge, rather, it is a highly specialized
knowledge that is shared among community of
professionals. It is acquired in formal, professional-
specific learning environments and refined in
discourse with other experts. Research distinguishes
between teachers’ subject-specific content knowledge,
subject-unspecific psychological-pedagogical
knowledge. Content knowledge is conceptualized as a
deep understanding of the content to be taught,
pedagogical content knowledge is defined as the
knowledge necessary to make this content accessible
to students, and psychological-pedagogical
knowledge is defined as the generic, cross-curricular
knowledge needed to create and optimize teaching
and learning situations. In this study, it was reiterated
that teacher variables link directly and mainly with
student achievement. Effects of teachers’ competence
on students’ progress is mediated by differences in
teachers’ quality of instruction. Support of individual
learning is characterized by forms of student-centered
instruction in which teachers monitor the learning
process, provide individual feedback, show empathy
for students’ problems, and adapt the instruction
accordingly. In summary, this study explains that
teacher quality that the two competing hypotheses,
BPH (Bright Person Hypothesis) and KTH
(Knowledgeable Teacher Hypothesis), are often
brought into play, that teachers’ success is general
cognitive ability, personal attributes that should enter
the teacher education, and knowledge alone does not
sufficiently explain the differences in teachers’
behavior and success, which brings to KTH, and
aspects such as beliefs, motivation, and self-regulation
need to be further taken into account. In testing these
assumptions, the researchers were guided by two
objectives. First, the multi-criterion approach in
determining teachers’ success and investigated
teacher effects not only on the students’ achievement
but also on students’ motivation, an aspect that is
often over-looked in teacher quality research. Second
was the effects of teachers but in mediating variables,
that is, the specific teaching behaviors teachers’
display and that seem to be a reason for different
students’ outcomes.
5 METHODOLOGY
This chapter discusses the research design, data-
gathering instrument, respondents of the present
study, and appropriate statistical treatment of data.
5.1 Research Design
The research design employed in this study was
quantitative-qualitative design or mixed-method
research design by Creswell (2013) to address the
questions mentioned in the present study. This
research design is appropriate with different sample
sizes, a general rule of thumb for qualitative research
the samples for a single study involving individual
interview usually lie at under 50. If much larger than
50 it becomes difficult to manage in terms of data
collection and analysis that can be achieved. Some
experts in qualitative research suggested to move
further away from the traditional forms and practices
(Ritchie, Lewis, Nichols, & Ormston, 2013). Therefore,
the respondents were limited only to 50 respondents.
These respondents were the marine engineering
students of the College of Maritime Education (CME),
JBLFMU-Molo. They were redistributed according to
the different groupings such as according in order to
address that were identified in this study.
5.2 Data-Gathering Instrument
The quantitative data were taken by using data-
gathering instrument entitled “Teaching Competence
Rating Scale” validated and reviewed by the Members
of Research Committee of the Research Department of
JBLFMU-Molo, Iloilo City, Philippines. These
quantitative data were analyzed using appropriate
statistical tools such as frequency count, percentage,
mean, t-test, ANOVA, and rank.
The qualitative data and information were
captured by using the texts taken from the open-
ended questions. The respondents were chosen by the
researchers because of their experiences and
246
engagement as irregular students that were very
challenging and unique cases. Narrative written
statements were shared by the respondents to express
their ideas and comments about their teachers and
displayed competencies acquired at the maritime
university (JBLFMU-Molo), the only maritime
university in the Philippines.
5.3 Respondents of the Study
The respondents of the present study were the fifty
(50) irregular marine engineering students who were
presently enrolled for this first semester of the School
Year 2018-2019 at the College of Maritime Education,
JBLFMU-Molo, Iloilo City, Philippines. The
respondents were further classified according to the
different categories such as type of residence that they
were statying (own house and boarding house),
number of years as irregular student (1-5 years and 6
years and more), age (25 years old & below and 26
years old and above), area of instructors assigned to
irregular students).
In terms of type of residence, 27 (54%) students
were staying in their own house and 23 (46%)
students stayed in the boarding houses. The 40 (80%)
students stayed in the school as irregular for 1 to 5
years and 10 (20%) students stayed in the school for 6
years and more. Forty (40, 92%) students were 25
years old and below and 10 (20%) were 26 years old
and above. The respondents who evaluated
professional instructors were 31 (62%) students, the
respondents who evaluated the technical area were 5
(10%) students, and respondents who evaluated the
General education teachers were 14 (48%) students.
Data are shown in Table 1.
Table 1.
_______________________________________________
Profile of the Respondents
_______________________________________________
Category f %
_______________________________________________
A. Entire Group 50 100.00
B. Type of Student
Regular 27 54.00
Irregular 23 46.00
C. Place of Origin
Iloilo City 40 80.00
Outside Iloilo City 10 20.00
D. Age
25 years old and below 40 80.00
26 years old and above 10 10.00
E. Area of instructors assigned to be
evaluated by irregular students
Professional 31 62.00
Technical 5 10.00
General Education 14 28.00
_______________________________________________
5.4 Statistical Treatment of Data
Appropriate descriptive tools such as frequency
count, percentage, mean, and standard deviation were
used in this study. For inferential statistics, t-test and
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were utilized by the
authors in the data-analysis.
After the survey was completed, the data were
encoded in the computer. The encoded data were
edited and checked for consistency and processed in
the computer using the SPSS program.
6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this chapter, the researchers present the results and
discussions of the present study on descriptive and
inferential data-analysis. The results are divided into
the following: (1) Level of Teaching Competence of
Instructors handling Irregular Students, (2)
Differences in the Teaching Competence of Instructors
using t-test and ANOVA, (3) Most Dominant
Competencies of the Teachers assigned in the
Irregular Students, (4) Least Dominant Competencies
of the Teachers assigned in the Irregular Students, and
(5) Suggestions to Improve the Teaching Competence
of Instructors assigned to Irregular Students.
6.1 Level of Teaching Competence of the Instructors of
Irregular Students
The level of teaching competence of the instructors as
an entire group was “high” with the mean score of
3.75. As to the different categories of the respondents,
the results were “high” in majority of the categories
with corresponding mean scores of 3.65, 3.87, 3.73,
3.93. 3.71, 4.23, 3.81, and 3.89 respectively. However,
for the technical area, the respondents had “average”
result as indicated by the mean score of 2.99 only.
Data are shown in Table 2 and Table 3.
Table 2
_______________________________________________
Level of Teaching Competence of the Teachers of irregular
Students
_______________________________________________
Category Mean Description
_______________________________________________
Entire Group 3.75 High
Residence of the Respondents
Iloilo City 3.65 High
Outside Iloilo City 3.87 High
Number of years as an Irregular Student
1-5 years 3.73 High
6 years and above 3.93 High
Age
25 years old and below 3.71 High
26 years old and above 4.23 High`
Area of being evaluated
Professional 3.81 High
Technical 2.99 Average
General Education 3.89 High
_______________________________________________
Table 2
_______________________________________________
Level of Teaching Competence of the Teachers of irregular
Students
_______________________________________________
Category Mean Description
_______________________________________________
Entire Group 3.75 High
Residence of the Respondents
Iloilo City 3.65 High
Outside Iloilo City 3.87 High
Number of years as an Irregular Student
1-5 years 3.73 High
6 years and above 3.93 High
Age
25 years old and below 3.71 High
26 years old and above 4.23 High
Area of being evaluated
Professional 3.81 High
Technical 2.99 Average
General Education 3.89 High
_______________________________________________
247
Table 3
_______________________________________________
Teaching Competence of the Teachers as Classified
According to Rank
_______________________________________________
Item Mean Rank
_______________________________________________
formulates/adopts objectives of his/her 3.64 11
lesson
selects content and prepares appropriate 3.78 6.5
instructional materials/ teaching aids with
integration of ICT/CBT
selects teaching methods/strategies 3.82 5.0
relates new lesson with previous knowledge/ 3.96 1.0
skills
provides appropriate motivation 3.86 4.0
presents and develop lessons 3.64 11
conveys ideas clearly 3.92 2.5
utilizes the art of questioning to develop 3.64 11
higher level of thinking
ensures pupils/students participation 3.62 13
addresses individual differences 3.52 14
shows mastery of the subject matter 3.92 2.5
diagnosis learner’s needs 3.66 9.0
evaluates learning outcomes 3.78 6.5
assess lesson to determine desired outcomes 3.74 8.0
within the allotted time
_______________________________________________
6.2 Differences in the Teaching Competence of Instructors
The results in the t-test revealed that there were no
significant differences existed in the teaching
competence of the instructors when the respondents
were categorized according to type of residence, t (48)
= -.949, p > .05 and number of years as irregular
student, t (48) = -.438, p > .05.
Data are shown in Table 4.
Table 4
_______________________________________________
t-test Results of Differences on Teaching Competence as
Categorized into Type of Residence while studying,
Number of Years as irregular students, and Age
_______________________________________________
Category Mean t-value df Sig.
_______________________________________________
Type of Residence while studying
Own House 3.65 -.949 48 .347
Boarding House 3.87
Number of years as an Irregular Student
1-5 years 3.73 -.438 48 .663
6 years and above 3.93
Age
25 years old and below 3.71 -1.198 48 .237
26 years old and above 4.23 -1.936 .112
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6.3 Differences in the Teaching Competence of the
Teachers assigned to Irregular Students when
classified according to Type of Instructors
Using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Table 5
results revealed that there were no significant
differences in the teaching competence of the irregular
teachers when the respondents were grouped
according to age, F (2, 47) = 1.086.
Table 5
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ANOVA Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Results in the
Teaching Competence of the Teachers assigned to Irregular
Students when classified according to Areas of
Specialization
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Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Squares
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Between Groups 4.00 2 .834 1.086 .419
Within Groups 119.20 47 .768
Total 123.20 49
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6.4 Most Dominant Competencies of the Teachers
assigned in the Irregular Students
As revealed in Table 6 below, the most dominant
teaching competencies of the instructors assigned to
irregular students are the following: (1) relating new
lesson with previous knowledge/skills (M = 3.96, R =
1), (2) conveying ideas clearly (M= 3.92, R = 2.5), (3)
showing mastery of the subject matter (M = 3.92, R =
2.5), (4) providing the students appropriate
motivation (M = 3.86, R = 4), and (5) selecting
appropriate teaching methods/strategies (M = 3.82, R =
5).
Table 6
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Most Dominant Competencies of the Teachers assigned in
the Irregular Students
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Category Mean Rank Description
relating new lesson with 3.96 1.0 High
previous knowledge/skills
conveying ideas clearly 3.92 2.5 High
showing mastery of the subject 3.92 2.5 High
matter
providing the students 3.86 4.0 High
appropriate motivation
selecting appropriate teaching 3.82 5.0 High
methods/strategies
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6.5 Least Dominant Competencies of the Teachers
assigned in the Irregular Students
Table 7 below shows the least dominant teaching
competencies of instructors assigned to irregular
students for this School year 2018-2019 such as the
following: (1) addressing student-individual
differences (M = 3.52, R =14), (2) ensuring
pupils/students participation(M = 3.62, R = 13), (3)
utilizing the art of questioning to develop higher
level of thinking ( M = 3.64, R = 11), (4) presenting and
developing lessons ( M = 3.64, R = 11),and (5)
formulating/adopting objectives of his/her lesson ( M
= 3.64, R = 11).
Table 7
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Least Dominant Competencies of the Teachers assigned in
the Irregular Students
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Category Mean Rank Description
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addressing student-individual 3.52 14 High
differences
ensuring pupils/students 3.62 13 High
participation
utilizing the art of questioning 3.64 11 High
to develop higher level of thinking
presenting and developing 3.64 11 High
lessons
formulating/adopting objectives 3.64 11 High
of his/her lesson
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