1 INTRODUCTION The International Chamber of Shipping [1] report on
the Global Supply and Demand for Seafarers has
The Use of Instructional Materials in Physical Education
to Enhance the Students’ Knowledge and Skills in
Swimming and Life
-Saving Techniques
R.R. Germo, B.G.S. Sarinas,
E.C. Coo, M.R. Teruñez, B.E. Gavadan, C.Y. Jardenil
John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University, Iloilo City, Philippines
ABSTRACT: John B. Lacson Foundation Maritime University (Arevalo), Inc. is mandated to offer aquatic-sports
courses such as paddling, rowing, sailing, and swimming to equip students with needed skills essential for
survival in case of emergencies. Since, there is a dearth of instructional materials in Physical Education 2
(Advanced Swimming and Life-saving Techniques), the JBLFMU-Arevalo was given a research grant by the
CHED (Commission on Higher Education) known as DARE TO (Discovery Applied Research and Extension
Trans/Inter-Disciplinary Opportunities) to address the problem. This DARE TO grant aimed to develop
instructional materials in PE 2 that will enhance the swimming performance and life-saving techniques of
students. That is why the researchers would like to test for the effectiveness of this instructional material in the
form of modules over the traditional approach which is lecture in improving the students’ swimming
performance and life-saving techniques in terms of their knowledge and skills. This non-equivalent control
group under quasi-experimental study was utilized among the BSMT (Bachelor of Science in Marine
Transportation) students. A pretest was used to determine swimming performance of the experimental and
control groups. An intervention through the use of instructional materials was employed in the experimental
group for the whole semester (five months) while the control group was exposed to lecture as a traditional
method of instruction. After a semester, the posttest was administered. The statistical tools used were mean,
standard deviation, Mann-Whitney test, and Wilcoxon-signed ranks test. The findings of the study revealed that
the instructional material is effective in enhancing the swimming performance and life-saving techniques of
students both in the aspects of knowledge and skills. Both the experimental and control groups were “Fair” in
their knowledge pretest scores but during the posttest, the experimental group was “Good” and the control
group was “Fair”. On the other hand, both the experimental and control groups were “Fair” in their skills’
pretest scores but during their posttest, the control group was “Good” while the experimental group was
“Excellent”. The experimental group who used the module showed significantly better performance during the
posttest both for knowledge and skills compared to the control group who did not use the module (lecture
only). The study further showed significant differences in the mean gains between the experimental and control
groups after the conduct of pretest and posttest in favor of the experimental group. It can be gleaned from the
results that the module can enhance the knowledge and skills in swimming performance and life-saving
techniques of the experimental group. It is highly recommended that this module be utilized among maritime
schools offering swimming and life-saving courses.
International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 16
Number 2
June 2022
DOI: 10.12716/1001.16.02.05