Business and simulating games play an important
role in processes of education. Many books and
scientific papers are devoted to games designing and
their realization in various fields of economy and
industry (Campbell, 1980, Keys and Wolfe, 1990,
Platov, 1991, Pidkasistiy, 1996, Anderson, 2009, etc.).
But, professional development of maritime specialists
supposes learning new theoretical knowledge and its
actualization because of their activity is realized in
"an aggressive environment” with a high probability
of extreme situations occurrence. However, in actual
practice of port activity, navigation and cargo
transportation many theoretical developments are not
often in demand (Belyaev, 1999). For this reason a
specialist is not familiar sometimes with the relevant
skills in the proper degree. Such a gap can be
eliminated through "artificial/virtual" methods of
knowledge actualization: training and business/
simulation games. The effectiveness of these methods
is proved into practice (Moiseenko, 2004, Meyler and
Moiseenko, 2009). The development of business
games for maritime specialists requires high
professionalism both from the developers themselves
and from teachers/experts who lead the game and
generate situations in the play activity of trainees.
Simulation Methods of Designing Specialist’
Qualification Improvement System
S.S. Moyseenko & L.E. Meyler
Baltic Fishing Fleet State Academy of the Kaliningrad State Technical University, Kaliningrad, Russia
ABSTRACT: Development of the specialists’ professional competence can be achieved both directly during
games and a post-game analysis. Since the continuing education system must respond quickly to changes in
external and internal conditions it is necessary to adapt it to new conditions. This is possible when scientific and
pedagogical staff of the university is ready to the project activity. In this regard the problem of teachers training
for such activities is actual one. The most effective methods of such preparedness development are game
methods and, in particular, business and simulation games. There are situations of "conflict" of interest during
games as in real life and teachers of different subjects must search a compromise that satisfies basic learning
goals. During the game, participants consider many variants for solving certain project tasks, methods of
training schemes designing. It is very important in the sphere of maritime specialists training. Participants are
often faced with a lack of methodological training that is an important motivating factor for self-development
and new knowledge. Business and simulations games have an aim to develop readiness of teachers to design
educational systems. The paper discusses the methodological approaches to the development of conceptual
designs of professional business/simulation games for seafarers and managers of maritime transport and
describes a business/simulation game scenario “Ensuring the safety of maritime cargo transportation”. The
problems of the game organization, a results analysis and developing measures to improve the system of
training and self-improvement plans of participants are considered..
the International Journal
on Marine Navigation
and Safety of Sea Transportation
Volume 13
Number 1
March 2019
DOI: 10.12716/1001.13.01.07
The important task of selecting the training content
has to be solved both during designing the game and
in the process of its realization. It was suggested
(Meyler and Moiseenko, 2010, Moiseenko and Meyler,
2011, Meyler et al., 2012) a method for the game
content determination based on the principle of
integration of diagnostic, simulation and expert
methods. The diagnostic method allows to make an
analysis of the existing specialist’s level of training,
opportunities, advantages and disadvantages of his
self-development system. Using this method it is
possible to study the development of the situation in
the past, present and to identify trends,
approximating them for future. It is identified the
need for compensatory education as a result of the
diagnostics of the specialist. In accordance with the
given objectives the selection of the content can be
corrected in the context of development plans.
Our investigations (Moiseenko and Meyler, 2009,
2010, 2011, 2012) show that he level of professional
preparedness can be estimated by testing the ability to
analyse various situations and to make adequate
decisions. A considerable experience has been gained
in estimating specialists’ professional level in recent
years. In particular, a new generation of training
simulators allows modelling various situations at sea
ports and in the process of cargo transportation
(http://www.transas.ru/). However, issues of complex
estimation of the professional level of specialists in
the field of maritime transport management,
including a psychological aspect, are not developed
For a complex estimation of the professionalism
level, it is necessary to develop criteria that can be
represented as a “standard of a professional"
(Campbell, 1980, Novikov, 1998, Melnitchuk and
Yakovleva, 2000, Sergeev at al., 2003, Meyler and
Moiseenko, 2007). Such a standard has to be an
integrated image of the specialist linking his various
features. Since the analysis of interactions occurring in
the process of a specialist’s activity can reveal more
completely individual features, his training level and
causes influencing on a decrease of his activity
effectiveness, the structure of the “standard portrait”
should include:
requirements for a personality nature;
professional features and knowledge,
psychological features of a personality specific to
the concrete work.
An analysis of existing methods (Nazarenko, 2007)
of forming a specialist portrait shows that the most
effective approach is the expert evaluation method in
combination with the system-activity analysis
method. The “standard of a professional” should be
oriented to a specific area of his activity (for example,
the Head of a sea port, a stevedore of a container
terminal, a port Chief technologist, a Master of a
container ship, etc.). In this regard, it is necessary to
be guided by opinions of experts in the field of the
activity for which the “standard of a professional” is
In the context of scientific and technological
progress and a continuous "renewal of knowledge"
individual personal educational values are becoming
the priority. This process results in transition of the
educational theory and practice from the paradigm of
learning within which a person acts as an "object of
learning impact" to the paradigm of lifelong learning,
self-development and self-improvement of
individuals. However, the process of continuous
education and professional development will be
effective only under condition of its controllability.
Hence, it is necessary to create certain conditions
and management of the educational process. Real
needs in the continuous development of
professionalism, self-development and self-
improvement of specialists determine the relevance of
creation of the adaptive system of the continuous
education (qualification improvement). The system
which is being designed should be based on the
principles of: systemacy, adaptability (rapid response
and change), integration (e.g. into the global
educational environment), accessibility, technological
effectiveness and dynamism.
Practical implementation of these principles
requires that the system has a high potential for self-
perfection and its improvement through integration
into the existing system of new high-tech modules.
An adaptive continuing education (qualification
improvement) specialist’ system is "mobile" and must
rapidly respond to changing internal and external
conditions, new challenges. Thus, it is necessary to
adjust the existing system and create new subsystems
integrating them into the main system. A response to
changes of conditions or challenges should be
prompt. It is possible on condition that the academic
staff of an institution of higher education will be
prepared to carry out a project activity and possess
scientific tools to optimize the design decisions.
In this regard, the issue of qualification
improvement (teachers’ training) for design activities
is the most relevant. The most effective methods to
develop readiness for the project activity are gaming
techniques, in particular, business and simulation
games. This statement is based on the results of the
practical application of such games in the Institute for
qualification improvement of the Baltic Fishing Fleet
State Academy (BFFSA) and in the course of cadets
training in the field of maritime transport (Meyler and
Moiseenko, 2009, 2010, Moiseenko and Meyler, 2003,
2009, 2010).
A "conflict of interests" arises in the course of
games as well as in real-life situations. In such
situation teachers of different disciplines have to find
a compromise for solving the main problem. For
example, it is important to consider interdisciplinary
connections while forming training systems. Games
simulate the professional communication
environment. During the game all the problems
concerning rational organization (logistics) of
interdisciplinary connections are solved more
effectively. At the same time, participation of highly
qualified experts allows teachers of special and
general-theoretical sciences (applied mathematics,
information technology, mechanics, cybernetics, etc.)
to deepen their knowledge in new trends and their
specificity. Thus, the actual task is to develop an
appropriate model of a business/simulation game
allowing to carry out multi-purpose game simulation
experiments within the problem: creation of the
person-oriented pedagogical qualification
improvement system. Only the structural elements of
a fishing-industrial complex having both internal
logistics links and links to the external environment
are considered in the paper.
2.1 A methodological basis
Such a work is essential for creation of new areas of
qualification improvement, having no prototype. It is
especially important when there is a need to improve
the skills of experts in relation to the technical re-
equipment of enterprises (ports, fleet), introduction of
innovative technologies, etc. Creating
business/simulation game (which is an analytical act)
gives a researcher full understanding of the system
being modelled. At the same time, the game can be
regarded as an operationalization of hypotheses,
theoretical positions and relationships which are
known before the game is created (Pidkasistiy, 1996).
During the development of a business/simulation
game model, these theoretical positions are
systematically summarized and supplemented so that
the created game model becomes a virtual reflection
of a studied object or a process. In some cases after
creating such a model the investigated problem
becomes so clear that there is no need for simulation
experiment. Thus, there is the problem of professional
readiness development of academics and specialists
which are involved in educational processes. As a
methodological basis, we use a systematic approach
and methodological seminars and
business/simulation games as educational
technologies. In the games teachers have to develop a
project of a pedagogical system of professional
development. Thus, the process of teachers’
qualification improvement in the context of
development of competencies is launched. The goal of
the game is development of knowledge and skills of
teachers, researchers and professionals in the field of
education to carry out project work connected with
creation of new adaptive educational systems of
qualification improvement.
The following scheme is proposed for designing
the pedagogical system of qualification improvement
of maritime specialists using business/simulation
goals of forthcoming studies and designing are
a team of teachers / professionals and experts is
hypotheses and theoretical concepts of the
researched object or subject are put forward;
hypotheses and theoretical concepts are made as a
prototype of the expected outcome;
a supposed structure of the solution is developed,
i.e. to emphasize the issues and problems of the
study which can have a variety of alternatives for
their implementation;
an analytical overview on the study problems is
carried out;
the information that it would be desirable to
obtain is defined.
A business/simulation game has been created on
the basis of the formulated hypotheses, theoretical
concepts and relations in accordance with the set
goals. It is necessary to clearly define the simplicity of
a game development in relation to the reality, which
makes it possible to change the planned game model
in future in order to test hypotheses or new
theoretical concepts:
a team of participants and experts of a research
group (they may be the same participants and
experts) is created;
programmes and plans for the game with fixed
"points" of a control, the structure of the controlled
parameters and variables are developed.
A business/simulation game is created as a self-
developing system with adaptive properties which
ensure the principle of an autonomy of subjects and
episodes of the game. This principle provides the
flexibility of the simulation model which makes it
possible to "complete" and "adjust" the game for a
specific group of participants and gives an
opportunity to rationalise a training course plan, if the
game is used for training purposes.
2.2 A business/simulation game structure
The process of designing the game has four main
phases: preparation for the game, gathering initial
information and development of the technical task,
development of the project; its assessment, reviewing,
the project defence; delivery of the project to the
customer. The preparatory period includes a set of
works related to the formation of reference literature,
software for solving optimization problems,
preparation of tasks; generation of disturbances that
will be included into the game; specifying system of
ratings, penalties and incentives; acting and
discussing the game scenario with experts/arbitrators,
etc. At this stage instructing the game participants
takes place. The formation of project teams and the
initial knowledge control of the project participants (if
necessary) as well as methodological consultations are
conducted. Designing pedagogical system for
qualification improvement suggests development of a
draft project of the system including such basic
elements as a subject and an object of teaching, the
process of teaching and self-development, the
teaching content and the technology, methodological,
methodical, technical and information support. Let’s
consider a business/simulation game structure shown
in figure 1.
2.2.1 Brief description of the game
The game process is managed by a specialist
imitating the role of the project leader. There is also
an expert group consisting of 2 or 3 people and
maritime specialists working together with the leader.
The specialists are representatives of companies for
the personnel of which the system is created. It is
reasonable to include in the group of experts a
researcher/methodologist who would use the game as
a tool for scientific purposes. Each group develops its
own version of the system, discusses the various
views of the participants and finds compromise
solutions. Then each group prepares a summary and
defends the own project. The group of experts
reviews and evaluates all projects. Rewards and
penalties are assessed in points. The points also assess
and the quality of the projects. During the game there
is a break from time to time for a meeting of the game
group management (the leader and the experts) when
the game itself and claims are discussed. At the
meeting it is possible to change members of the group
if needed. At the end of the game the leader and the
experts choose the winner of the game. The project
options presented by different groups become then a
basis for further discussion which is the subject of the
postgame activity of experts and individuals involved
(e.g. group leaders). A detailed analysis of the game
and results of the research are performed during the
postgame activity. After that the decisions on the use
of the projects both for the further game development
and for creating a real system of qualification
improvement / continuing education are made.
The game participants are: the leader of the game
(the project manager), methodologist, assistant,
researcher, teachers and specialists who form project
groups; an expert group which may also acts as client
representatives and opponents of the project. All the
participants are divided into groups according to
their choice. Groups can include 3-5 people who
choose the leader of the group.
The leader of the game formulates the goal and
main objectives which are to be solved in the course
of the game.
The main objectives include:
1 an analysis of the situation in post-graduate
education and in terms of implementation of the
ideas of continuing professional development, self-
development and self-improvement;
2 formulation of contradictions and problems,
setting up tasks in their logical relationship;
3 development of a draft project of the pedagogical
system for qualification improvement:
development of the system ideology;
formulation of the main requirements for the
designed system and efficiency criteria;
development of a process model of the system;
definition of inputs and outputs of the system,
parameters, controllable and uncontrollable
development of a structural model of
qualification improvement;
development of a functioning algorithm of the
system of qualification improvement;
definition of functional work places (demo
version) and a set of technical devices;
carrying out simulation experiments on the use
of the system;
checking the system for compliance with the
conditions and requirements according to the
eligible criteria;
assessment of the project.
4 calculation of the efficiency of the project.
5 the project defence.
2.2.2 The game process
When all the prescribed procedures have been
completed, the project groups come into the main
period of the game. To present the content of the
game project the appropriate scheme blocks presented
in figure 1 are commented below.
aration to the
1.1. Instruction of the
1.2 Preparation of work
1.3 Instruction of the game
1.4. Participants self-
instructions, groups self-
2. Game
2.1. To hand out the task for designing 2.2. To define the composition of initial
2.3. Collecting initial information
2.4. Analysis of the situation 2.5. Formation of the problems, goals
and ob
2.6. Requirements of the project
2.7. Development of technical task for
2.8. Development of conceptual design
of the system of the educational
improvement system
2.9. Defining the set of
competences which will be form
during the process of qualification
2.10. Defining the content of the
teaching process. (with experts
2.11. Defining inter-subjects links and
optimal combination of disciplines
2.12. Selecting methods of the input
control of specialists’ knowledge
2.13. Developing / selecting methods
for planning trajectory of the
educational process regarding the
needs of the societ
and an individual
2.14. Defining methods and techniques
of teaching and self-development,
informational and methodological
ort, technical means
2.15. Making and preparing project
presentations (each group prepares
a presentation/report)
2.16 Projects presentation 2.17. Projects evaluation. Selection of
the best project
2.18. Preparation of
recommendations for game
participants (in terms of further
3. Summin
Figure 1 - Block diagram of the business/simulation game for the design of qualification improvement system
Blocks 2.1.-2.2. A project task is given by "a
customer" to the each project group. The task contains
information about the specialization of maritime
specialists, training objectives and expected results.
For example, the goal is forming competences in the
field of innovative technologies implementation for
container terminals or for the specialized vessels. The
leader of the project group presents the task for
designers in order to analyse the task, to define the
content and sources of initial information needed for
the development of technical task and the project.
Blocks 2.3.-2.7. The following works are carried
out: gathering initial information, an analysis of the
situation in ports and in the fleet. For example,
innovative technologies and experience in specialists’
training in the field of activity are analysed. On the
basis of the analysis problems, goals, objectives and
requirements for the project are formulated. The
technical task for designing is then developed and
agreed with the customer. After developing the
technical task the project groups submit their brief
progress reports to be discussed at a plenary session
by all the game participants. In the reports it is
necessary to prove the relevance and fundamental
ability to perform the project task in accordance with
the customer specifications. The designers should
present their vision of the project at the level of
abstraction and the possibility to work out
alternatives. It is necessary to define which quality
and effectiveness criteria are supposed to be taken
into account. The fulfilled work will be assessed by
Blocks 2.8.-2.9. The groups start designing. At the
first stage the process model of qualification
improvement system is developed. The main
elements / modules and their main parameters, inputs
and outputs of the system are defined. On the basis of
an analysis of the activity for which specialists’
teaching is planned, the game participants (teachers
and experts) define and formulate the main
competencies which should be mastered by specialists
as the result of the teaching process.
Blocks 2.10.-2.11. On the basis of the analysis of a
new type of activity in the field of which a specialist
should acquire a complex of new competencies the
structural component of the designed system is
defined. Interdisciplinary links and logical chain of
the teaching process are defined. Defining these links
and volume of teaching courses should follow the
logic of common sense, but not ambitions of teachers.
Therefore the volume of study hours of teaching
courses should be reasonably based on the priority
and complexity of the acquiring competencies, and
the course corrections will be performed after the
results of testing experts. Options for determining the
content of the study process should be agreed with
the customer. After the customer’s approval the
groups continue their work on the project.
Blocks 2.11-2.13. Teachers-participants determine
jointly with specialists and maritime experts
interdisciplinary links and rational combination of
courses. At the same time the following problems are
solved: a) selection of the methods of input testing of
specialists arriving for improving qualification,
selection/development of methodological approaches
to the process of qualification improving. A rational
logistic chain/trajectory is developed virtually
showing organization of the process of qualification
improvement. In this case, it is important to show
how the idea of person-oriented teaching will be
Blocks 2.14-2.16 Methods and techniques of
training/self-development are selected on the basis of
the analysis of the required competences, the
educational and professional level of specialists. The
methodological, informational, technical and
technological support of the educational process is
defined. The groups complete the developed projects,
prepare their presentations and to report the results of
the work at the plenary session.
Blocks 2.17-2.18. The game leader, experts and
arbitrators determine the best project, the best project
group, the best project designer. Summing up the
game and its discussing, approving recommendations
are made at the plenary session. The leader
announces completion of the game.
2.3 The business/simulation game “Ensuring the safety of
maritime cargo transportation”
As an example of designing a business/simulation
game it is considered the methodological approach to
the game the main purpose of which is formation of
abilities and skills for managing processes of the
cargo transportation safety (Moiseenko and Meyler,
2011). The following tasks are necessary to solve in
order to achieve this purpose:
determination of professional preparedness of
specialists to act in difficult circumstances and
unusual situations;
development of skills for an analysis and decision-
making during the process of the professional
study of integrative processes of the maritime
engineer’s professional preparedness formation;
analysis of maritime safety ensuring problems and
efficiency of fleet commercial operations.
A preliminary design of the business/simulation
game is given in table 1. It is seen that the game
provides simulating six plots directly linked to the
game process. Participants get instructions and learn
the game rules as a part of the first plot. At the same
time the lead of the game, formulating goals of the
game simulation experiment and analysing the
situation, notes existing substantial contradictions
between the desirable and realizable and thereby
“running” problematization processes, goals setting
and self-determinations.
Table 1. Scenario plan of the business/simulation game "Ensuring the safety of maritime cargo transportation"
Plot Episodes Actions
1. Preparation for the game 1.1. Instructing the game organizers Theme, goals, tasks, area of responsibility,
and experts. regulations. Instructing, distribution and
1.2. Instructing the game participants, study of materials, etc.
studying of regulations, systems of the Clarification of the game governance, penalties
game control and evaluation of and bonuses systems, etc.
participants actions. Formation of play groups and roles
1.3. Determination of play groups and distribution.
roles distribution.
2. Incoming control of 2.1. Participant’s testing. Presentation of a test card to a participant of
participants knowledge 2.2. Definition of testing results. the game.
and skills Explanation of the testing task and an
evaluation procedure.
3. A ship voyage planning 3.1. Definition of initial information, A ship owner sends the ship's captain a telex
its collection and analysis. containing instructions on the next voyage:
3.2. Route selection of the voyage to the ports of the ship loading/unloading, kind,
port of loading/unloading. type and quantity of cargo, special cargo
3.3. Project and the ship cargo plan characteristics, time for loading,
development according to the criteria loading/unloading rates, handling
of safety and effectiveness. procedures of shipping documents, lay-time
3.4. Planning ship stores, material and calculation, etc.
technical supply, crew completing The captain of the ship distributes tasks to
and training for the voyage. prepare the ship for the voyage.
3.5. Ship voyage planning.
3.6. Planning safety actions.
4. Loading the ship 4.1. Coordination of a cargo plan with The head of the game and experts performing
stevedores and the action plan for the roles of shippers, agents, inspectors,
work safety providing and surveyors, stevedores, etc. generate
environmental protection. introductory data oriented to the growing
4.2. Monitoring the condition status of complexity of the situation.
cargo, its stowage in holds and storage, Situation of a conflict between the ship and the
mounting, etc. shipper regarding the quality of packaging
4.3. Control of hydrometeorogical and labeling cargo is created.
conditions. The situation of the ship structures or cargo
4.4. Drawing up primary shipping damage due to negligence of dockers (crane
documents. operators) is initiated.
4.5. Drawing up protest letters in case of Participants of the game execute the required
infraction of rules by stevedores in documents (notices, protests and acts of
loading or delivery of cargo which damage, etc.) and try to find compromise
has "defects ", as well as of the ship solutions.
structures damage during loading. Fixing knowledge and skills needed for solving
professional problems and situations,
definition of "gaps" in knowledge and skills.
5. Issuing documents for cargo 5.1. Issuing Bills of Lading, addition of Experts initiate a conflict in terms of remarks
(Bills of Lading, cargo remarks and lay-time commencement. including in the bill of lading, as well as in
manifest, etc.) 5.2. Drawing up permission for the ship the act of laytime preparation.
to leave the port. The situation when port authorities claims
concerning technical condition of the ship,
etc. are simulated.
6. Preparation of the ship for 6.1. Implementation of actions in Implementation of inspections in accordance
leaving the port accordance with the regulations for with checklists.
navigation safety. Diagnostics of technical means, etc.
6.2. Definition of the time of the pilot’s Discussing with the agent problems related to
arrival onboard, the required number leave the ship at sea.
of tugs, a weather forecast, navigation Clarification of the weather forecast and
conditions, etc. navigation conditions at the time of the ship
6.3. Drawing up a statement of a fact the leave.
ship's readiness to a voyage. Filling in the logbook and other forms of
Experts initiate conflicts, complicate the
Simultaneous fixation of the captains and his
mates errors as well as errors of experts.
7. Analysis and summarizing 7.1. Organization of discussing Reports of the play groups leaders, self-
of the game. the game results. evaluation of the actions of the game
7.2. Estimation of the working groups’ participants with an emphasis the attention
actions in the game. on the occurred errors and the "gaps" in
7.3. Formation of the block of "gaps" in knowledge and skills, relation to the game
the knowledge and skills of the and wishes.
participants, typical mistakes and The experimental material accumulated during
miscalculations. the game is systematized and processed in
7.4. Final selection of learning content and order it will be possible to carry out the
development of professionalism of procedure of training content selection, to
marine specialists. build the system of subject knowledge and
7.5. Specification of the training programs ways of their integration.
for specialists for the postgame period. Training programs are corrected according to
7.6. Consulting assistance to the the results of the game experiment if
participants of the game in participants continue training in play
development of their programs of groups.
self-development/self-designing. Participants receive consulting assistance,
7.7. Development by the game organizers including assistance in development of the
of the postgame activity program program of self-training and self-
concerning the game and preparation development if they continue studies
of the report on the game simulation independently.
8. Postgame activity concerning 8.1. Processing the results of the game Results of the experiment are processed taking
the game . simulation experiment with a goal to into account the earlier obtained data from
determine dependences, rational other experiments of the same direction, that
methods of formation of the allows to accumulate the empirical material.
professional personality, knowledge Comparing the results, establishing
of integration and configurators. dependences, confirmation of the previous
8.2. Conducting methodological seminars results is considerable contribution to the
for teachers and experts. development of our theoretical
8.3. Development of the complex of representations about the subject of the
purpose-oriented programs of study.
vocational development of marine
specialists and ways to adapt these
programs to a person.
The second plot provides preliminary estimates of
participants’ readiness to the game. In case of
unsatisfactory test results it is assumed that such a
result helps to intensify the process of motivation of
specialists for developing professionalism. “Gaps” in
knowledge and skills found as the test results are
eliminated by the decision of the game leader. Thus,
the compensatory function of education is realized,
i.e. advices can be given to participants of the game
and special literature for self-study may be
The third, fourth and sixth plots are extremely
important because at these stages many of the major
issues of navigation safety ensuring and sea cargo
transportation are solved in real practise. It is
assumed that not only typical real situations are
fulfilled at these stages, but a complex of non-
standard situations that happen rarely in real activity
is simulated too. In cases of such situations
appearance serious negative consequences can entail
if adequate solutions will not be found by responsible
Thus, the task of the game leader and experts
playing roles of officials, who can counteract the
captain of the ship and other persons involved in the
process of sea cargo transportation under certain
conditions, is to generate episodes and situations
“provoking” a conflict and thereby substantially
complicating making a solution of professional tasks.
At the same time, as “home prepared” tasks, as
actions according to a present situation can be
performed for generating the game situations. It
allows to implement the game variation into the real
game situation, i.e. the structure of the game has
many degrees of freedom. Thus, the game adapts
depending on the goals and specific problems
requiring the solution. The game participants fix
results of the analysis, calculations, decisions and the
effect of these decisions. They take into account the
specific conditions, the professional experience of all
participants of the game group. The experts record
the work of groups and individuals in the each
episode and plot. Their duties include clear fixating
errors, “gaps” in knowledge, abilities and skills of
specialists and their ability to integrate with various
kinds of knowledge for solving complex professional
problems. In addition experts observe the behaviour
of game participants in difficult situations.
During the game experts and the leader of the
game analyse activities of participants and estimate
their performance, identify areas of knowledge and
skills in which it is useful to hold substantive and
methodological consultations. For example, our
experience in business/simulation games designing
shows that there is practically always a need for
methodological consultations in a systematic
approach methodology, a system analysis, designing
without prototypes, etc. (Moiseenko and Meyler,
2011). Decisions obtained for each plot are discussed
by all participants of the game. Representatives of
groups make reports where the idea of the design
decision is revealed, as well its motivation and
implementation methods with evaluation of possible
consequences of the decision implementation.
Speakers answer questions from experts and other
participants of the game, fixing critical remarks and
opponents’ suggestions. Final estimates for each plot
are determined after the public discussion of the play
groups’ reports. All working materials relating to the
analysis of situations in each plot, developing design
solutions, a decisions’ motivation and a choice of the
decisions implementing methods are given to the
game leader for the further examination in accordance
with the objectives of the game simulation
experiment. Processing game results requires certain
time. Therefore, it is possible to realise partially
selection of the content of the training and
professional development directly during the game,
as it was mentioned above. But a careful analysis of
the game materials is held in the postgame period. In
the process of the analysis it is often possible to detect
some important regularity, to get an understanding of
some of the integration processes, interdisciplinary
system links and to evaluate the effectiveness of
various knowledge integrating methods for
professional problems solving. The experimental
results allow to select the content of training and
development of maritime specialists on the higher
qualitative level, as well as to find new plots of the
game and new opportunities for the whole game. An
example of the training content selection and
professional development of ships masters on the
results of game simulating experiments is given in
table 2.
Table 2. Matrix representation of the content selection scheme for maritime specialists training and development
Plot or Acts of Subject Skills and
operation activity knowledge abilities
Ship’s voyage Route selection Hydrometeorology and oceanography. Be able:
planning of the voyage to Navigation and sailing directions to find sources of information;
the port of Cyclones and anticyclones, sea to analyze synoptic chart data and long-term
destination currents. forecasts;
Aid to navigation, etc. to determine risk factors and their assessment
correlated to concrete constructive and
exploitations characteristics of the ship, its
to evaluate the impact of the navigation
conditions on the operating parameters of
the ship;
to find necessary documents regulating cargo
to apply them;
to make the cargo plan showing the holds
rotation during loading;
to perform calculations of stowage;
to calculate ship stability and sitting, bending
moments and shear forces;
to assess the impact of the extreme conditions
on the longitudinal and local strength of the
ship, etc.
Planning The project The theory of the ship. Be able:
measures to and plan Theoretical mechanics. to find necessary document, to assess its
ensure the of ship Strength of materials. adequacy;
safety of loading Regulations for the cargo to the studied problem;
maritime cargo transportation to apply creatively legal acts, regulations,
transportation Requirements of the international recommendations in order to solve practical
convention (SOLAS, MARPOL). problems;
Ship’s stability at high angles of heel, to present systemically whole range of
local and general ship's longitudinal measures to ensure the safety of maritime
strength, ship’s unsinkability. cargo transportation and to correlate
Requirements and recommended everything with methods and means of
schemes of different cargo strapping. these measures practical implementation.
International Sea Law. to fix performance facts in the logbook.
International regulations related to
Rules of technical exploitation.
Fire safety rules.
Navigation safety rules.
Knowledge of rules and their
application, basic legal acts
(territorial waters, economic zones,
Execution of Issuing the Commercial work in the merchant Be able:
shipping Bill of Lading fleet. to issue the Bill of Lading correctly and
documents Notion of the Bill of Lading, its kinds, formulate remarks (if there are any) in
and functions. accordance with cargo insurers
Master’s remarks to the Bill of Lading recommendations;
concerning cargo quality or its to champion/to protect the commercial
packing, etc. interests of the ship owner or the charterer
in the case of a conflict with shippers;
to formulate claims and to justify them;
to prove invalidity of the claims to the ship.
The matrix representation of the content selection
scheme for maritime specialists training and
development allows to realize a deductive method of
the each plot analysis, differentiation of activities and
subjects of knowledge required for their
implementation. Further, it is possible to determine
what skills and abilities of a specialist must have to
solve professional problems and, therefore, what the
specialist’s skills and abilities it is necessary to
develop to achieve a high level of professionalism.
The analysis of the experience of business/simulation
games development and their use for purposes of
qualification improvement shows that the games are
special training grounds for testing the participants’
behaviour and interaction. The simulation model of
the professionally-oriented communication
environment created in the games shows the
processes of communication, searching a compromise
and rational decisions, the adoption of innovative
technologies, the study of the implications of group
actions and (if required) the individual participants in
dynamics. It should be noted that in
simulation/business games conditions are created
through the use of background knowledge to acquire
new knowledge and its updating, i.e. enriching
experience of practical implementation of knowledge.
Game forms of designing qualification
improvement systems will be fruitful if teachers and
experts/highly qualified specialists of companies –
employers play a role of designers.
It enables to solve the three major problems:
1 to improve the skills of teachers and maritime
specialists involved in terms of studying specific
new activities, acquiring know-how of systematic
projecting educational processes, improving
communication culture;
2 to develop an "almost" optimal algorithm for
designing educational systems for qualification
improvement within new activities;
3 to develop optional projects which can be
considered as prototypes and recommendations
for adaptability to changing conditions.
The effectiveness of the game largely depends not
only on its ideology and content-intensity, but also on
the level of organization of the games. It is important
that the system of motivation does not contradict the
goals of the experiment and the participants
themselves become researchers, assistants of
experimenters and play an active role.
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