@article{Patraiko_Wake_Weintrit_2010, author = {Patraiko, David and Wake, Philip and Weintrit, Adam}, title = {e-Navigation and the Human Element}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {4}, number = {1}, pages = {11-16}, year = {2010}, url = {./Article__Patraiko,13,195.html}, abstract = {e-Navigation is an IMO initiative defined as ?the harmonised collection, integration, exchange, presentation and analysis of maritime information onboard and ashore by electronic means to enhance berth to berth navigation and related services, for safety and security at sea and protection of the marine environment?. IMO has dictated that e-Navigation should be ?User Need? led and take into account the Human Element. This paper will explore some of the Human Element issues within e-Navigation and stress that for enhancement of safety, security and environmental protection, the decision maker must be supported not only by the technology, but importantly with effective procedures and training.}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Marine Navigation, e-Navigation, IALA Approach, IMO Approach, S-Mode, Human Element, User Needs, Human Machine Interface (HMI)} }