@article{Furusho_Kawamoto_Yano_Sakamoto_2011, author = {Furusho, Masao and Kawamoto, Ken-ichiro and Yano, Yoshijo and Sakamoto, Kazuya}, title = {Visual Condition at Sea for the Safety Navigation}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {5}, number = {1}, pages = {59-64}, year = {2011}, url = {./Article_Visual_Condition_at_Sea_for_the_Furusho,17,267.html}, abstract = {To the navigation officers of the watch (OOW?s) on the navigation bridge the environmental condition of visual acuity is the most important factor for keeping a proper look-out, as regulated by the IMO COLREG?s (Rule 5). Navigation officers are required to keep a proper look-out for prevention of (ships) collisions. There are many collision incidents at sea, and especially so under conditions of good visibility. This paper has two topics related to the illuminance and luminance from sunlight, as follows: The first topic is the introductory explanation of the illuminance inside the navigation bridge. The second topic is the sky luminance condition as seen by the OOW from the navigation bridge. These two topics are fundamental factors related to visual perception at sea. The OOW on the bridge has to understand that every care must be taken, especially in fine weather conditions.}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Safety at Sea, Colregs, Navigational Bridge, Visual Condition at Sea, Officer of the Watch (OOW), Look-Out, Good Visibility, Observation} }