@article{Lager_Topp_Malec_2020, author = {Lager, M√Arten and Topp, Elin Anna and Malec, Jacek}, title = {VR Teleoperation to support a GPS-free Positioning System in a Marine Environment}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {14}, number = {4}, pages = {789-798}, year = {2020}, url = {./Article_VR_Teleoperation_to_support_a_GPS-free_Positioning_System_in_a_Marine_Environment_Lager,56,1061.html}, abstract = {Small autonomous surface vehicles (ASV) will need both teleoperation support and redundant positioning technology to comply with expected future regulations. When at sea, they are limited by a satellite communication link with low throughput. We have designed and implemented a graphical user interface (GUI) for teleoperation using a communication link with low throughput, and one positioning system, independent of the Global Positioning System (GPS), supported by the teleoperation tool. We conducted a user study (N=16), using real-world data from a field trial, to validate our approach, and to compare two variants of the graphical user interface (GUI). The users experienced that the tool gives a good overview, and despite the connection with the low throughput, they managed through the GUI to significantly improve the positioning accuracy.}, doi = {10.12716/1001.14.04.01}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Alternative Navigation Systems, Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV), Graphical User Interface (GUI), Global Positioning System (GPS), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV), Terrain-Aided Navigation (TAN), VR Teleoperation} }