@article{Hornauer_Hahn_Blaich_Reuter_2015, author = {Hornauer, Sascha and Hahn, Axel and Blaich, Michael and Reuter, Johannes}, title = {Trajectory Planning with Negotiation for Maritime Collision Avoidance}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {9}, number = {3}, pages = {335-341}, year = {2015}, url = {./Article_Trajectory_Planning_with_Negotiation_Hornauer,35,590.html}, abstract = {The problem of vessel collisions or near-collision situations on sea, often caused by human error due to incomplete or overwhelming information, is becoming more and more important with rising maritime traffic. Approaches to supply navigators and Vessel Traffic Services with expert knowledge and suggest trajectories for all vessels to avoid collisions, are often aimed at situations where a single planner guides all vessels with perfect information. In contrast, we suggest a two-part procedure which plans trajectories using a specialised A* and negotiates trajectories until a solution is found, which is acceptable for all vessels. The solution obeys collision avoidance rules, includes a dynamic model of all vessels and negotiates trajectories to optimise globally without a global planner and extensive information disclosure. The procedure combines all components necessary to solve a multi-vessel encounter and is tested currently in simulation and on several test beds. The first results show a fast converging optimisation process which after a few negotiation rounds already produce feasible, collision free trajectories.}, doi = {10.12716/1001.09.03.05}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Trajectory Planning, Trajectory Planning with Negotiation, Negotiation, Route Planning, Collision Avoidance, Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), Expert Knowledge, Colregs} }