@article{Paranina_Paranin_2016, author = {Paranina, Alina and Paranin, Roman}, title = {The Research of Northern Labyrinths as Navigation Network Elements}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {10}, number = {3}, pages = {451-456}, year = {2016}, url = {./Article_The_Research_of_Northern_Labyrinths_Paranina,39,667.html}, abstract = {The authors of the article consider the stone labyrinths as solar calendars. In the center of these structures there are usually already installed gnomons ? vertical objects that give shade. Midday shadow points to north, and the change of its length during a year is correlated with the diameter of the arcs of the labyrinth. Points of sunrise / sunset at the equinoxes and solstices are very often fixed in the pattern of the labyrinth, as well as the beginning of the annual cycle. In general, patterns of labyrinths are of the same type, the differences reflect the regional characteristics of illumination, the differences in latitude and topography (shape of the horizon). The uniformity of the technology and the location on the waterways give an opportunity to consider stone labyrinths as ancient elements of local and regional navigation networks.}, doi = {10.12716/1001.10.03.10}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Northern Labyrinths, Megalithic Sites, Gnomon, Navigational Instruments, Information Model of the World (IMW) , Navigation Network, Arctic Circle, History of Navigation} }