@article{Berg_2007, author = {Berg, Tor Einar}, title = {Ship-to-ship Operations in Cold Climate Environments}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {1}, number = {3}, pages = {327-332}, year = {2007}, url = {./Article_Ship-to-ship_Operations_in_Cold_Berg,3,45.html}, abstract = {Within the Norwegian maritime cluster there is a growing interest in studies of harsh weather marine operations. For the oil industry offshore loading is a preferred operation for production at minor oilfields far from existing infrastructure. Safe and cost-effective production from recent oil and gas discoveries close to the coastline of Northern Norway introduces new challenges due to cold climate environments. At the same time increased transit of oil from northwest Russia will require increased ship-to-ship transfer in an optimized cargo chain from the oilfields to customers in Europe and the USA.}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Pollution, Environment Protection, STS Operations, Cold Climate, Marine Navigation, Safety at Sea, Norwegian Coastal Administration (NCA), Arctic Navigation} }