@article{Popek_2019, author = {Popek, Marzenna}, title = {Sea Transportation of Coal Liable to Liquefaction}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {13}, number = {4}, pages = {803-807}, year = {2019}, url = {./Article_Sea_Transportation_of_Coal_Liable_Popek,52,958.html}, abstract = {The marine industry is a vital link in the international trade, with vessels representing the most efficient, and often the only method of transporting large volumes of raw materials. Coal is a major cargo with hundreds of millions of tons being shipped every year for power consumption and industrial uses. The vast majority of coal traded is delivered by sea. The IMSBC Code specifies requirements related to the safe stowage and shipment of coal that may give rise to relevant on-board risks, for example structural damage due to improper coal distribution, chemical reaction leading to spontaneous combustion, emission of explosive gases and liquefaction. As coal is liable to liquefaction, several precautions should be taken before accepting the cargo for shipment and procedures for safe loading and carriage should be respected. According to the analysis of the data, the proportion of fines in the cargoes shipped worldwide has been accepted as an appropriate criterion to identify the potential of a coal cargo for liquefaction. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of coal properties on the ability to liquefy. The relation between the degree of fragmentation and the value of the TML was analyzed. In addition, the possibility of using different method for determination of the TML was discussed.}, doi = {10.12716/1001.13.04.13}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Sea Transportation, Cargo Handling, Liquefaction, Transportable Moisture Limit (TML), Chemical Reaction, Coal, Coal Liable to Liquefaction, IMSBC Code} }