@article{Byeon_Grundmann_Burmeister_2021, author = {Byeon, Seongsu and Grundmann, Robert and Burmeister, Hans-Christoph}, title = {Remote-Controlled Tug Operation via VR/AR: Results of an In-Situ Model Test}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {15}, number = {4}, pages = {801-806}, year = {2021}, url = {./Article_Remote-Controlled_Tug_Operation_Byeon,60,1177.html}, abstract = {The German-funded FernSAMS project aimed at the development of an unmanned, remote-controlled tug operation with AR/VR technology. After an extensive simulation test with ship-handling simulators, the developed FernSAMS AR/VR system has now been in-situ tested with a scale model of the tug. The model test results showed very robust stability in remote operations with improved situational awareness with the VR/AR system and sensors. After a short introduction of the FernSAMS concept as well as some first insights into FernSAMS Human-Machine-Interface tests within the simulator, this paper introduces the technical setup of the scale-model tests being conducted with the FernSAMS concept to test the operational and technical feasibility of AR/VR-based remote control. This includes an overview of the systems and sensors integration and an analysis of the effectiveness of AR/VR system combined with 360-degree video streaming.}, doi = {10.12716/1001.15.04.12}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {AR/VR Technology, Human Machine Interface (HMI), Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), AR/VR System, Remote-Controlled Tug Operation, In-Situ Model Test, Unmanned Vessel} }