@article{Hanchrow_2017, author = {Hanchrow, Gregory}, title = {International Safety Management - Safety Management Systems and the Challenges of Changing a Culture}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {11}, number = {1}, pages = {125-131}, year = {2017}, url = {./Article_International_Safety_Management_Hanchrow,41,708.html}, abstract = {Over the past generation, the ISM code has brought forth tremendous opportunities to investigate and enhance the human factor in shipping through the implementation of Safety Management Systems. One of the critical factors to this implementation has been mandatory compliance and a requirement for obtaining a Document of Compliance (DOC) for vessels operating globally or at least internationally. A primary objective of these systems is to maintain them as ?living? or ?dynamic? systems that are always evolving. As the ISM code has evolved, there have been instances where large organizations have opted to maintain a voluntary DOC from their respective class society. This has been accomplished with a large human factor element as typically an organizational culture does not always accept change readily especially if there is not a legal requirement to do so. In other words, when considering maritime training is it possible that organizations may represent cultural challenges? The intent of this paper will be to research large maritime operations that have opted for a document of compliance voluntarily and compare them to similar organizations that have been mandated by international law to do the same. The result should be to gain insight into the human factors that must contribute to a culture change in the organization for the purposes of a legal requirement versus the human factors that contribute to a voluntary establishment of a safety management system. This analysis will include both the executive decision making that designs a system implementation and the operational sector that must execute its implementation. All success and failures of education and training can be determined by the outcome. Did the training achieve its goal? Or has the education prepared the students to embrace a new idea in conjunction with a company goal or a new regulatory scheme? In qualifying the goal of a successful ISM integration by examining both mandatory and voluntary ISM implementation in large maritime operations, specifically ferry systems, hopefully we can learn from the various factors that have gone into each.}, doi = {10.12716/1001.11.01.15}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Safety at Sea, Safety Culture, Maritime Safety Culture, International Safety Management (ISM) Code, ISM Code, Safety Management System (SMS), Document of Compliance (DOC), Human Factor (HF)} }