@article{Hemminghaus_Bauer_Padilla_2021, author = {Hemminghaus, Christian and Bauer, Jan and Padilla, Elmar}, title = {BRAT: A BRidge Attack Tool for Cyber Security Assessments of Maritime Systems}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {15}, number = {1}, pages = {35-44}, year = {2021}, url = {./Article_BRAT:_A_BRidge_Attack_Tool_for_Hemminghaus,57,1092.html}, abstract = {Today’s shipping industry is largely digitalized and networked, but by no means immune to cyber attacks. As recent incidents show, attacks, particularly those targeting on the misleading of navigation, not only pose a serious risk from an economic perspective when disrupting maritime value chains, but can also cause collisions and endanger the environment and humans. However, cyber defense has not yet been an integral part of maritime systems engineering, nor are there any automated tools to systematically assess their security level as well-established in other domains. In this paper, we therefore present a holistic BRidge Attack Tool (BRAT) that interactively offers various attack implementations targeting the communication of nautical data in maritime systems. This provides system engineers with a tool for security assessments of integrated bridge systems, enabling the identification of potential cyber vulnerabilities during the design phase. Moreover, it facilitates the development and validation of an effective cyber defense.}, doi = {10.12716/1001.15.01.02}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Cyber Security, Bridge Attack Tool (BRAT), Cyber Attack, Cyder Defense, Maritime Systems, Security Assessment, Integrated Bridge System (IBS), Maritime Cyber Security} }