@article{Erstad_Ostnes_Lund_2021, author = {Erstad, Erlend and Ostnes, Runar and Lund, Mass Soldal}, title = {An Operational Approach to Maritime Cyber Resilience}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {15}, number = {1}, pages = {27-34}, year = {2021}, url = {./Article_An_Operational_Approach_to_Maritime_Erstad,57,1091.html}, abstract = {As a result of the last decades development of technology and increased connectivity of maritime vessels, the need for maritime cyber security is undoubtedly present. In 2017, IMO officially recognized â€sâ€S the urgent need to raise awareness on cyber threats and vulnerabilities to support safe and secure shipping, which is operationally resilient to cyber risks”. Thus, Maritime Cyber Resilience is seen as key by IMO in the improvement of the maritime cyber security. It is assumed that human error is the cause of more than half successful cyber-attacks. If technology somehow fails, in example because of a cyber threat, the human is expected to handle the problem and provide a solution. It is therefore necessary to focus on the human aspect when considering maritime cyber threats. This paper aims to provide a working definition of â€sMaritime Cyber Resilience”. Further, the paper argues why the human should be a focus of study, as the human is at the sharp edge in a potential maritime cyber emergency.}, doi = {10.12716/1001.15.01.01}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Cyber Security, Maritime Cyber Resilience, Cyber Resilience, Cyber Attack, Cyber Risk, Cyber Risk Management, Maritime Cyber Security, Maritime Cyber Emergency} }