@article{Meland_Bernsmed_Wille_Rødseth_Nesheim_2021, author = {Meland, Per HÃAkon and Bernsmed, Karin and Wille, Egil and Rødseth, Ørnulf Jan and Nesheim, Dag Atle}, title = {A Retrospective Analysis of Maritime Cyber Security Incidents}, journal = {TransNav, the International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation}, volume = {15}, number = {3}, pages = {519-530}, year = {2021}, url = {./Article_A_Retrospective_Analysis_of_Maritime_Meland,59,1144.html}, abstract = {The maritime industry is undergoing a rapid evolution through the introduction of new technology and the digitization of existing services. At the same time, the digital attack surface is increasing, and incidents can lead to severe consequences. This study analyses and gives an overview of 46 maritime cyber security incidents from the last decade (2010-2020). We have collected information from open publications and reports, as well as anonymized data from insurance claims. Each incident is linked to a taxonomy of attack points related to onboard or off-ship systems, and the characteristics have been used to create a Top-10 list of maritime cyber threats. The results show that the maritime sector typically has incidents with low frequency and high impact, which makes them hard to predict and prepare for. We also infer that different types of attackers use a variety of attack points and techniques, hence there is no single solution to this problem.}, doi = {10.12716/1001.15.03.04}, issn = {2083-6473}, publisher = {Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Navigation}, keywords = {Cyber Security, Maritime Cyber Security, Retrospective Analysis, Digital Attack, Cyber Security Incidents, Maritime Cyber Security Incidents, Maritime Cyber Threats, Maritime Incidents} }